Learn More
Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes (30-100 nm) that are produced through the endocytic pathway via the multivesicular bodies and the ectosomes (100-1000 nm) that are released through the budding of the plasma membrane. Despite the differences in the mode of biogenesis and size, reliable markers that can distinguish between exosomes and(More)
We recently isolated a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) from the Rubiaceae (coffee family) plant Oldenlandia affinis (OaPDI) and demonstrated that it facilitates the production of disulfide-knotted defense proteins called cyclotides. PDIs are major folding catalysts in the eukaryotic ER where they are responsible for formation, breakage, or shuffling of(More)
Using an atomic force microscope, we have studied three-dimensional molecular topography and calcium-sensitive conformational changes of individual hemichannels. Full-length (non-truncated) Cx43 hemichannels (connexons), when reconstituted in lipid bilayer, appear as randomly distributed individual particles and clusters. They show a lack of preferential(More)
The skin secretions of Australian tree frogs are rich in peptides with potential antimicrobial activity. They interrupt bacterial cell membranes, although precisely how and whether all peptides have the same mechanism is not known. The interactions of three of these peptides-aurein 1.2, maculatin 1.1, and caerin 1.1 with supported phospholipid bilayers-are(More)
Mounting evidence underscores the importance of protein-protein interactions in the functional regulation of drug-metabolizing P450s, but few studies have been conducted in membrane environments, and none have examined P450s catalyzing sex steroid synthesis. Here we report specific protein-protein interactions for full-length, human, wild type steroidogenic(More)
We demonstrate a straightforward and rapid atomization process driven by surface acoustic waves that is capable of continuously producing spherical monodispersed submicron poly-ε-caprolactone particle aggregates between 150 and 200 nm, each of which are composed of nanoparticles of 5-10 nm in diameter. The size and morphologies of these particle assemblies(More)
The solution structure of fallaxidin 4.1a, a C-terminal amidated analogue of fallaxidin 4.1, a cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the amphibian Litoria fallax, has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In zwitterionic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles, fallaxidin 4.1a adopted a partially helical structure with random coil(More)
Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM; also called non-contact atomic force microscopy) is the prevailing operation mode in (sub-)atomic resolution vacuum applications. A major obstacle that prohibits a wider application range is the low frame capture rate. The speed of FM-AFM is limited by the low bandwidth of the automatic gain control (AGC)(More)
Small proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have attracted considerable interest, as they target specific intracellular bacterial components and do not act by lytic mechanisms. Here, a novel peptide, termed oncocin (VDKPPYLPRPRPPRRIYNR-NH(2)), is reported that was optimized for the treatment of Gram-negative pathogens. Its minimal inhibitory(More)