Adam M. H. Young

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Autism spectrum condition (ASC) is recognized as having an inflammatory component. Post-mortem brain samples from patients with ASC display neuroglial activation and inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid, although little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a(More)
The current diagnostic criteria for traumatic brain injury (TBI) are heavily reliant on an accurate clinical history of events. Diagnosis of mild injury relies on one or more of the following: confusion or disorientation, loss of consciousness (LOC) for 30 min or less, post-ictus amnesia for less than 24 h and/or other transient neurological abnormalities(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of a subdural drain after burr-hole evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma is safe and effective in preventing recurrence and subsequent operations, and as such improving functional outcomes. METHODS The literature search included the following databases: PubMed, the National Institutes of Health/National Library(More)
Growing evidence points toward a critical role for early (prenatal) atypical neurodevelopmental processes in the aetiology of autism spectrum condition (ASC). One such process that could impact early neural development is inflammation. We review the evidence for atypical expression of molecular markers in the amniotic fluid, serum, cerebrospinal fluid(More)
UNLABELLED Background and Need for Novel Biomarkers: Brain tumors are the leading cause of death by solid tumors in children. Although improvements have been made in their radiological detection and treatment, our capacity to promptly diagnose pediatric brain tumors in their early stages remains limited. This contrasts several other cancers where serum(More)
It is becoming clear that inflammation plays a significant role in a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Post mortem brain samples in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia and most recently autism spectrum condition, all exhibit neuroglial activation and inflammatory markers(More)
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a condition with suboptimal functional outcomes, especially in the young population. Pharmacotherapy has an accepted role in several aspects of the disease and an emerging role in several others. No preventive pharmacologic interventions for SAH currently exist. Antiplatelet medications as well as anticoagulation have(More)
Cerebral vasospasm is a major contributor to delayed morbidity following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We sought to evaluate differential plasma protein levels across time in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to identify potential biomarkers and to better understand the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Nine female patients with(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a risk factor for dementia. Mixed neurodegenerative pathologies have been described in late survivors of TBI, but the mechanisms driving post-TBI neurodegeneration remain elusive. Increasingly, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been recognized in a range of neurologic disorders including dementias, but little is known(More)
INTRODUCTION Treatment-limiting decisions (TLDs) are employed to actively withhold treatment from patients whom clinicians feel would derive no benefit or suffer detrimental effects from further intervention. The use of such decisions has been heavily discussed in the media and clinicians in the past have been reluctant to institute them, even though it is(More)