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Determining the effect of gene deletion is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function. Conventional genetic screens exhibit biases, and genes contributing to a phenotype are often missed. We systematically constructed a nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames, or ORFs) of the yeast Saccharomyces(More)
Haploinsufficiency is defined as a dominant phenotype in diploid organisms that are heterozygous for a loss-of-function allele. Despite its relevance to human disease, neither the extent of haploinsufficiency nor its precise molecular mechanisms are well understood. We used the complete set of Saccharomyces cerevisiae heterozygous deletion strains to survey(More)
High similarity between yeast and human mitochondria allows functional genomic study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to be used to identify human genes involved in disease. So far, 102 heritable disorders have been attributed to defects in a quarter of the known nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins in humans. Many mitochondrial diseases remain unexplained,(More)
We have quantitatively monitored the sporulation and germination efficiencies of approximately 4,200 yeast deletion strains in parallel by using a molecular bar coding strategy. In a single study, we doubled the number of genes functionally implicated in sporulation to approximately 400, identifying both positive and negative regulators. Our set of 261(More)
Cohesion between sister chromatids mediated by a multisubunit complex called cohesin is established during DNA replication and is essential for the orderly segregation of chromatids during anaphase. In budding yeast, a specialized replication factor C called RF-C(Ctf18/Dcc1/Ctf8) and the DNA-polymerase-alpha-associated protein Ctf4 are required to maintain(More)
Gene regulation in bacteria is usually described as an adaptive response to an environmental change so that genes are expressed when they are required. We instead propose that most genes are under indirect control: their expression responds to signal(s) that are not directly related to the genes' function. Indirect control should perform poorly in(More)
Systems-level analyses of non-model microorganisms are limited by the existence of numerous uncharacterized genes and a corresponding over-reliance on automated computational annotations. One solution to this challenge is to disrupt gene function using DNA tag technology, which has been highly successful in parallelizing reverse genetics in Saccharomyces(More)
Sulfate-reducing bacteria play major roles in the global carbon and sulfur cycles, but it remains unclear how reducing sulfate yields energy. To determine the genetic basis of energy conservation, we measured the fitness of thousands of pooled mutants of Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 during growth in 12 different combinations of electron donors and(More)
A comprehensive understanding of the cellular functions of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone has remained elusive. Although Hsp90 is essential, highly abundant under normal conditions, and further induced by environmental stress, only a limited number of Hsp90 "clients" have been identified. To define Hsp90 function, a panel of genome-wide chemical-genetic(More)
Identifying the genetic variation underlying quantitative trait loci remains problematic. Consequently, our molecular understanding of genetically complex, quantitative traits is limited. To address this issue directly, we mapped three quantitative trait loci that control yeast sporulation efficiency to single-nucleotide resolution in a noncoding regulatory(More)