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In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), disulfide bonds are simultaneously formed in nascent proteins and removed from incorrectly folded or assembled molecules. In this compartment, the redox state must be, therefore, precisely regulated. Here we show that both human Ero1-Lalpha and Ero1-Lbeta (hEROs) facilitate disulfide bond formation in immunoglobulin(More)
Glycoprotein folding is mediated by lectin-like chaperones and protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) in the endoplasmic reticulum. Calnexin and the PDI homologue ERp57 work together to help fold nascent polypeptides with glycans located toward the N-terminus of a protein, whereas PDI and BiP may engage proteins that lack glycans or have sugars toward the(More)
Pre-lamin A and progerin have been implicated in normal aging, and the pathogenesis of age-related degenerative diseases is termed 'laminopathies'. Here, we show that mature lamin A has an essential role in cellular fitness and that oxidative damage to lamin A is involved in cellular senescence. Primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) aged replicatively or(More)
MHC class I molecules are cell surface glycoproteins that play a pivotal role in the response to intracellular pathogens. The loading of MHC class I molecules with antigenic substrates takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum. This requires a functional TAP transporter, which translocates peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum from the cytosol. The(More)
Proteasomes are proteolytic complexes involved in non-lysosomal degradation which are localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The dynamics of proteasomes in living cells is unclear, as is their targeting to proteins destined for degradation. To investigate the intracellular distribution and mobility of proteasomes in vivo, we generated a fusion(More)
Mammalian fertilization comprises sperm migration through the female reproductive tract, biochemical and morphological changes to sperm, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct. Recent gene knockout approaches in mice have revealed that many factors previously considered important for fertilization are largely dispensable, or if they are essential, they(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductases (Eros) are essential for the formation of disulfide bonds. Understanding disulfide bond catalysis in mammals is important because of the involvement of protein misfolding in conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and aging. Mammals express two related Ero proteins, Ero1alpha and Ero1beta. Ero1beta is(More)
beta 2-Glycoprotein I-cardiolipin complexes are reported to be a target antigen for the binding of a subset of anti-phospholipid antibodies. The characteristics of binding of beta 2-glycoprotein I to cardiolipin are reported in this paper. Binding at neutral pH is specific, saturable, dependent on ionic strength and independent of bivalent cation. Binding(More)
SIGNIFICANCE Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its homologs have essential roles in the oxidative folding and chaperone-mediated quality control of proteins in the secretory pathway. In this review, the importance of PDI in health and disease will be examined, using examples from the fields of lipid homeostasis, hemostasis, infectious disease, cancer,(More)
The oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds is necessary for the growth of all organisms. In yeast, the oxidative folding of secretory pathway proteins is catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which requires Ero1p (endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin) for its own oxidation. In Homo sapiens, two homologues of Ero1p, Ero1-Lalpha and(More)