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BACKGROUND Data on causes of death due to respiratory illness in Africa are limited. METHODS From January to April 2013, 28 African countries were invited to participate in a review of severe acute respiratory illness (SARI)-associated deaths identified from influenza surveillance during 2009-2012. RESULTS Twenty-three countries (82%) responded, 11(More)
The tumors classified as gliomas include a wide variety of histologies including the more common (astrocytoma, glioblastoma), as well as the less common histologies (oligodendroglioma, mixed oligoastrocytoma, pilocytic astrocytoma). Recent efforts at comprehensive genetic characterization of various primary brain tumor types have identified a number of(More)
OBJECTIVE To better understand the risk of fatal toxic shock caused by Clostridium sordellii in women who had a recent medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol. METHODS We performed active and passive surveillance for cases of toxic shock associated with medical or spontaneous abortion. To identify the cause of toxic shock, immunohistochemical(More)
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive and lack targeted therapies. Understanding how nutrients are used in TNBCs may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Myc drives glucose metabolism in TNBC cells but does so by a previously unappreciated mechanism that involves direct repression(More)
The use of the highly effective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has increased globally. We review the benefits and limitations of studies measuring Hib vaccine effectiveness (VE). We critically examine the case-control approach by assessing the similarities and differences in methodology and findings and discuss the need for future Hib(More)
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is aggressive and lacks targeted therapies. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are frequently activated in TNBC patient tumors at the genome, gene expression and protein levels, and mTOR inhibitors have been shown to inhibit growth in TNBC cell lines. We describe a panel(More)
INTRODUCTION South Africa started routine infant immunization against Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease in 1999 with an accelerated three-dose schedule of Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) without a booster dose. Following initial declines in Hib disease, national surveillance has identified increasing numbers of Hib disease episodes in fully(More)
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2, originally discovered in 2008, occur in the vast majority of low-grade gliomas and secondary high-grade gliomas. These mutations, which occur early in gliomagenesis, change the function of the enzymes, causing them to produce 2-hydroxyglutarate, a possible oncometabolite, and to not produce NADPH. IDH(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the extent and scope of the outbreak of skin eruptions, to identify the causes of the acute skin diseases, to identify risk factors for the conditions, and to reduce the dermatologic morbidity among workers repairing buildings damaged by Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Military(More)
BACKGROUND Increased morbidity and mortality from lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) has been suggested in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children; however, the contribution of respiratory viruses is unclear. We studied the epidemiology of LRTI hospitalization in HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) and HEU infants aged <6 months in South Africa. METHODS We(More)