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We present a new linear-time algorithm to find the immediate dominators of all vertices in a flowgraph. Our algorithm is simpler than previous linear-time algorithms: rather than employ complicated data structures, we combine the use of microtrees and memoization with new observations on a restricted class of path compressions. We have implemented our(More)
We present a new approach for designing external graph algorithms and use it to design simple, deterministic and randomized external algorithms for computing connected components, minimum spanning forests, bottleneck minimum spanning forests, maximal independent sets (randomized only), and maximal matchings in undirected graphs. Our I/O bounds compete with(More)
We describe a new external memory data structure, the buffered repository tree, and use it to provide the first non-trivial external memory algorithm for directed breadth-first search (BFS) and an improved external algorithm for directed depth-first search. We also demonstrate the equivalence of various formulations of external undirected BFS, and we use(More)
We present two new data structure tools—disjoint set union with bottom-up linking, and pointer-based radix sort—and combine them with bottom-level microtrees to devise the first linear-time pointer-machine algorithms for off-line least common ancestors, minimum spanning tree (MST) verification , randomized MST construction, and computing domina-tors in a(More)
We design a variation of skip lists that performs well for generally biased access sequences. Given n items, each with a positive weight w i , 1 ≤ i ≤ n, the time to access item i is O 1 + log W wi , where W = n i=1 w i ; the data structure is dynamic. We present two instan-tiations of biased skip lists, one of which achieves this bound in the worst case,(More)
We study the problem of compressing massive tables. We devise a novel compression paradigm—training for lossless compression— which assumes that the data exhibit dependencies that can be learned by examining a small amount of training material. We develop an experimental methodology to test the approach. Our result is a system, pzip, which outperforms gzip(More)
Erasure codes have profound uses in wide- and medium-area storage applications. While infinite-size codes have been developed with optimal properties, there remains a need to develop small codes with optimal properties. In this paper, we provide a framework for exploring very small codes, and we use this framework to derive optimal and near-optimal ones for(More)