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BACKGROUND Anesthetics, including isoflurane and nitrous oxide, an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor, have been demonstrated to induce apoptotic neurodegeneration when administered during neurodevelopment. Xenon, also an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, not only lacks the characteristic toxicity produced by other(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroapoptosis is induced by the administration of anesthetic agents to the young. As alpha2 adrenoceptor signaling plays a trophic role during development and is neuroprotective in several settings of neuronal injury, the authors investigated whether dexmedetomidine could provide functional protection against isoflurane-induced injury. METHODS(More)
Endocrine therapy forms a central modality in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. The routine use of 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen has improved survival rates for early breast cancer, and more recently has evolved in the postmenopausal setting to include aromatase inhibitors. The optimal duration of adjuvant endocrine therapy remains(More)
Endocrine therapy is a key modality in the management of breast cancer, with current options for postmenopausal women including tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant. Unfortunately, in spite of these advances, many women still relapse or progress on endocrine therapy. Given that resistance (de novo or acquired resistance) is a major limiting(More)
The CNS is a common site of metastasis in patients with malignant melanoma. Locoregional control either with surgery or radiotherapy is first-line treatment for patients with brain metastasis should they be suitable candidates. For those patients who are not and those who progress after previous treatment, there is an unmet clinical need for effective(More)
Fulvestrant is a form of endocrine therapy used in the treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer. It has a unique mechanism of action in that it causes the degradation of estrogen receptor and therefore has been labeled a selective estrogen receptor downregulator. Unlike the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen, it has no agonistic properties and(More)
BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the use of nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin (NPLD) in the management of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) within routine UK clinical practice and to assess its efficacy and tolerability. PATIENTS AND METHODS All patients that received NPLD for MBC at 5 institutions were identified. Clinicopathologic details,(More)
Ethnic variation in breast cancer outcomes has been known for many decades. Much of the data derives from the US, whereas disparities seen in the United Kingdom are less well studied. Epidemiologic data suggest that the incidence of breast cancer in black women is less than that of white women, while their outcomes are significantly worse (Bowen et al,(More)
BACKGROUND The red cell distribution width is a biomarker of early mortality across various disease states. AIM To verify whether it may refine estimates of survival in hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS The red cell distribution width measured at diagnosis was analyzed in relationship to mortality by any cause both in a retrospective training cohort(More)