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The rationale for using small molecule inhibitors of oncogenic proteins as cancer therapies depends, at least in part, on the assumption that metastatic tumors are primarily clonal with respect to mutant oncogene. With the emergence of BRAF(V600E) as a therapeutic target, we investigated intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity in melanoma using detection of(More)
Overall, cancer vaccines have had a record of failure as an adjuvant therapy for malignancies that are treated with alkylating chemotherapy, and the contribution of standard treatment to that failure remains unclear. Vaccines aim to harness the proliferative potential of the immune system by expanding a small number of tumor-specific lymphocytes into a(More)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is among the most invasive and lethal of cancers, frequently infiltrating surrounding healthy tissue and giving rise to rapid recurrence. It is therefore critical to establish experimental model systems and develop therapeutic approaches that enhance anti-tumor immunity. In the current study, we have employed a newly developed murine(More)
Alkylating chemotherapy exerts both antineoplastic and immunostimulatory effects. However, in addition to depleting regulatory T cells (Treg), alkylating agents also mediate a long lasting antiproliferative effect on responder lymphocytes. Our recent findings indicate that this antiproliferative effect profoundly impairs vaccination-induced immune(More)
Cytotoxic T cells typically are expanded ex vivo in culture with IL2 for adoptive immunotherapy. This culture period leads to a differentiated phenotype and acquisition of effector function, as well as a loss of in vivo proliferative capability and antitumor efficacy. Here, we report antigen-specific and polyclonal expansion of cytotoxic T cells in a(More)
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