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abstract: In social groups composed of kin, inclusive fitness benefits can favor greater cooperation. Alternatively, cooperation can be enforced through the policing of less cooperative individuals. Here, we show that the effect of policing can be twofold: not only can it directly suppress individual selfishness, it can also entirely remove the incentive(More)
Caste conflict theory predicts that worker-destined individuals in insect colonies may try to develop as queens in order to gain greater direct reproduction. In situations where females can determine their own caste fate (Ôself-determinationÕ), this is expected to lead to overproduction of queens. Theoretical predictions are supported by patterns of queen(More)
BACKGROUND Monitoring change in species diversity, community composition and phenology is vital to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activity and natural change. However, monitoring by trained scientists is time consuming and expensive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using social networks, we assess whether it is possible to obtain accurate data on bee(More)
Despite recent papers on problems associated with full-model and stepwise regression, their use is still common throughout ecological and environmental disciplines. Alternative approaches, including generating multiple models and comparing them post-hoc using techniques such as Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), are becoming more popular. However, these(More)
We examined the occurrence, mechanism and costs and benefits of leaf caching in laboratory colonies of two species of leafcutting ants, Atta cephalotes and A. colombica. If foragers returning to the nest are unable to enter because of a temporary bottleneck caused by leaves building up they may deposit their leaf pieces outside the nest entrance, forming a(More)
Social network sites can provide useful resources for scientific research, especially in engaging citizen scientists in research. However, much citizen science work in biodiversity can be inaccurate due to poor identification and misreporting of information. Here we present an outline of a method that uses the photo-sharing website Flickr for mapping the(More)
Illegal hunting (poaching) is a global threat to wildlife. Anti-poaching initiatives are making increasing use of technology, such as infrared thermography (IRT), to support traditional foot and vehicle patrols. To date, the effectiveness of IRT for poacher location has not been tested under field conditions, where thermal signatures are often complex.(More)