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Mutual policing is an important mechanism for maintaining social harmony in group-living organisms. In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers police male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing.(More)
Insect societies are vulnerable to exploitation by workers who reproduce selfishly rather than help to rear the queen's offspring. In most species, however, only a small proportion of the workers reproduce. Here, we develop an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model to investigate factors that could explain these observed low levels of reproductive(More)
abstract: In social groups composed of kin, inclusive fitness benefits can favor greater cooperation. Alternatively, cooperation can be enforced through the policing of less cooperative individuals. Here, we show that the effect of policing can be twofold: not only can it directly suppress individual selfishness, it can also entirely remove the incentive(More)
Despite recent papers on problems associated with full-model and stepwise regression, their use is still common throughout ecological and environmental disciplines. Alternative approaches, including generating multiple models and comparing them post-hoc using techniques such as Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), are becoming more popular. However, these(More)
Caste conflict theory predicts that worker-destined individuals in insect colonies may try to develop as queens in order to gain greater direct reproduction. In situations where females can determine their own caste fate (Ôself-determinationÕ), this is expected to lead to overproduction of queens. Theoretical predictions are supported by patterns of queen(More)
BACKGROUND Monitoring change in species diversity, community composition and phenology is vital to assess the impacts of anthropogenic activity and natural change. However, monitoring by trained scientists is time consuming and expensive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using social networks, we assess whether it is possible to obtain accurate data on bee(More)
We examined the occurrence, mechanism and costs and benefits of leaf caching in laboratory colonies of two species of leafcutting ants, Atta cephalotes and A. colombica. If foragers returning to the nest are unable to enter because of a temporary bottleneck caused by leaves building up they may deposit their leaf pieces outside the nest entrance, forming a(More)
Hygienic behavior, a trait that may confer resistance to brood diseases in the honey bee Apis mellifera, was studied in two species of stingless bees in Mexico. Eight colonies each of Melipona beecheii and Scaptotrigona pectoralis were tested for hygienic behavior, the removal of dead or diseased brood, by freeze killing a comb of sealed cells containing(More)