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Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate(More)
In 2014, the vast majority of published biomedical research is still hidden behind paywalls rather than open access. For more than a decade, similar restrictions over other digitally available content have engendered illegal activity. Music file sharing became rampant in the late 1990s as communities formed around new ways to share. The frequency and scale(More)
INTRODUCTION Clinical trial registries are an important source of information for tracking clinical trials from their inception through to their reporting, and have been used to measure publication bias and outcome reporting bias. Our aim is to survey and quantify the processes that have been used to identify links between clinical trial registries and(More)
OBJECTIVE To model how individual violations in routine clinical processes cumulatively contribute to the risk of adverse events in hospital using an agent-based simulation framework. DESIGN An agent-based simulation was designed to model the cascade of common violations that contribute to the risk of adverse events in routine clinical processes.(More)
Between 34 and 15 million years (Myr) ago, when planetary temperatures were 3-4 degrees C warmer than at present and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were twice as high as today, the Antarctic ice sheets may have been unstable. Oxygen isotope records from deep-sea sediment cores suggest that during this time fluctuations in global temperatures and(More)
Social network analysis is an increasingly popular sociological method used to describe and understand the social aspects of communication patterns in the health care sector. The networks studied in this area are special because they are small, and for these sizes, the metrics calculated during analysis are sensitive to the number of people in the network(More)
OBJECTIVE To use multilevel modelling to compare the patient safety cultures of types of services across a health system and to determine whether differences found can be accounted for by staffs' professions, organizational roles, ages and type of patient care provided. DESIGN Application of a hierarchical two-level regression model. SETTING All(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should set findings within the context of previous research. The resulting network of citations would also provide an alternative search method for clinicians, researchers, and systematic reviewers seeking to base decisions on all available evidence. We sought to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Groups and individuals that seek to negatively influence public opinion about the safety and value of vaccination are active in online and social media and may influence decision making within some communities. OBJECTIVE We sought to measure whether exposure to negative opinions about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Twitter communities(More)