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OBJECTIVES To compare the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted split virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine used in the pandemic immunisation programme in the United Kingdom. DESIGN Open label, randomised, parallel group, phase II study. SETTING Five UK centres (Oxford, Southampton, Bristol, Exeter, and(More)
BACKGROUND Meningococcal conjugate vaccines protect individuals directly, but can also confer herd protection by interrupting carriage transmission. We assessed the effects of meningococcal quadrivalent glycoconjugate (MenACWY-CRM) or serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccination on meningococcal carriage rates in 18-24-year-olds. METHODS In this phase 3,(More)
Although anticapsular antibodies confer serotype-specific immunity to pneumococci, children increase their ability to clear colonization before these antibodies appear, suggesting involvement of other mechanisms. We previously reported that intranasal immunization of mice with pneumococci confers CD4+ T cell-dependent, antibody- and serotype-independent(More)
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The expectations-disconfirmation paradigm provides the most popular explanation of consumer satisfaction. However, and as is occasionally noted, if a customer experiences disconfirmation after consuming a product, future expectations regarding the product should be revised toward the performance perceived by the customer. If expectations(More)
Regulatory T cells (Treg) diminish immune responses to microbial infection, which may contribute to preventing inflammation-related local tissue damage and autoimmunity but may also contribute to chronicity of infection. Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus is common in young children and can persist for long periods but it is unknown whether the(More)
Recruitment of neutrophils into alveolar air spaces is an early event in the pathogenesis of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. This results from chemokines released by activated endothelial and epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Culture supernatants of 6 wild-type strains of S. pneumoniae, shown to contain choline-binding protein A (CbpA;(More)
UNLABELLED Anaphylaxis is a rare adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) and unlikely to be detected in prelicensure vaccine trials. Previous retrospective studies have been hampered by the paucity of information available to passive reporting schemes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the incidence and clinical presentation of anaphylaxis as(More)
BACKGROUND Although vaccination has been proved to be a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective intervention, immunisation rates remain suboptimal in many European countries, resulting in poor control of many vaccine-preventable diseases. DISCUSSION The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts focused on the perception of vaccines and vaccination(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated antibody persistence in children 1 year after 2 doses of either an AS03(B)-adjuvanted split-virion or nonadjuvanted whole-virion monovalent pandemic influenza vaccine and assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a subsequent dose of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). METHODS Children previously immunized at age 6 months(More)