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We report the clinical and immunologic features and outcome in 56 patients with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome, a disorder caused by mutations in the CD40 ligand gene. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (the latter frequently caused by Pneumocystis carinii), chronic diarrhea, and liver involvement (both often associated with Cryptosporidium(More)
CXC chemokines play a important role in the process of leukocyte recruitment and activation at sites of inflammation. However, recent evidence suggests that these molecules can also regulate endothelial cell functions such as migration, angiogenesis and proliferation. In this study we have investigated CXC chemokine receptor expression in both primary(More)
CONTEXT In the absence of an effective vaccine, serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) remains a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood in developed countries. OBJECTIVE To determine the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a multicomponent MenB vaccine (4CMenB) and routine infant vaccines when given either concomitantly or separately. (More)
Meningococcal group A+C capsular polysaccharide (PS) conjugate vaccines may prime for serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) memory responses to meningococcal capsular PS. It is not known whether these vaccines induce immunological memory at the mucosal level, which may be important in reducing nasopharyngeal carriage. Mucosal immune responses to meningococcal(More)
BACKGROUND Meningococcal conjugate vaccines protect individuals directly, but can also confer herd protection by interrupting carriage transmission. We assessed the effects of meningococcal quadrivalent glycoconjugate (MenACWY-CRM) or serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccination on meningococcal carriage rates in 18-24-year-olds. METHODS In this phase 3,(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an adjuvanted split virion H1N1 vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine used in the pandemic immunisation programme in the United Kingdom. DESIGN Open label, randomised, parallel group, phase II study. SETTING Five UK centres (Oxford, Southampton, Bristol, Exeter, and(More)
Studies of mice suggest that pneumococcal proteins, including PspA, pneumolysin, PsaA, and CbpA, are promising vaccine candidates. To determine whether these proteins are good mucosal immunogens in humans, adenoidal lymphocytes from 20 children who had adenoidectomies were isolated and tested by ELISpot for antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs).(More)
BACKGROUND Serogroup C meningococcal conjugate polysaccharide vaccines have been reported to induce significant serum IgG antibodies and immunologic memory in infants. Because meningococcus is a mucosal pathogen colonizing the nasopharynx, local mucosal immune responses may play an important role in host defense against infection and carriage. We have(More)
Chemokines are small peptides that are potent activators and chemoattractants for leukocyte subpopulations and some nonhemopoietic cells. Their actions are mediated by a family of 7-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, the size of which has grown considerably in recent years and now includes 18 members. Chemokine receptor expression on different cell(More)