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Within the circulatory system, blood flow regulates vascular remodelling, stimulates blood stem cell formation, and has a role in the pathology of vascular disease. During vertebrate embryogenesis, vascular patterning is initially guided by conserved genetic pathways that act before circulation. Subsequently, endothelial cells must incorporate the(More)
It has not previously been possible to live image the earliest interactions between the host environment and oncogene-transformed cells as they initiate formation of cancers within an organism. Here we take advantage of the translucency of zebrafish larvae to observe the host innate immune cell response as oncogene-transformed melanoblasts and goblet cells(More)
The transactivation of TCF target genes induced by Wnt pathway mutations constitutes the primary transforming event in colorectal cancer (CRC). We show that disruption of beta-catenin/TCF-4 activity in CRC cells induces a rapid G1 arrest and blocks a genetic program that is physiologically active in the proliferative compartment of colon crypts.(More)
BACKGROUND The mitogen-activated protein-kinase pathway consisting of the kinases RAF, MEK, and ERK is central to cell proliferation and survival and is deregulated in more than 90% of melanomas. MEK inhibitors are currently trialled in the clinic, but despite efficient target inhibition, cytostatic rather than cytotoxic activity limits their efficacy. (More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high lethality of melanoma, animal models for continuously observing melanoma formation and progression as well as for testing pharmacological agents are needed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using the combinatorial Gal4-UAS system, we(More)
Clonal selection and transcriptional reprogramming (e.g., epithelial-mesenchymal transition or phenotype switching) are the predominant theories thought to underlie tumor progression. However, a "division of labor" leading to cooperation among tumor-cell subpopulations could be an additional catalyst of progression. Using a zebrafish-melanoma xenograft(More)
BACKGROUND Integrins comprise a large family of alpha,beta heterodimeric, transmembrane cell adhesion receptors that mediate diverse essential biological functions. Higher vertebrates possess a single beta1 gene, and the beta1 subunit associates with a large number of alpha subunits to form the major class of extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors. Despite(More)
Invasive migration in 3D extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to cancer metastasis, yet little is known of the molecular mechanisms that drive reorganization of the cytoskeleton as cancer cells disseminate in vivo. 2D Rac-driven lamellipodial migration is well understood, but how these features apply to 3D migration is not clear. We find that(More)
The authors would like to clarify several issues recently raised by the PLOS Biology editors. In Fig 1, it was not clearly indicated that the images of larvae in D and E had been constructed by tiling several micrographs together. The authors have provided a corrected figure and legend, which now clearly indicate the tiling borders with dotted lines. In Fig(More)