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The National Malaria Control Center of Zambia introduced rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to detect Plasmodium falciparum as a pilot in some districts in 2005 and 2006; scale up at a national level was achieved in 2009. Data on RDT use, drug consumption, and diagnostic results were collected in three Zambian health districts to determine the impact RDTs had on(More)
This paper presents estimates of P. falciparum infection prevalence in children under 5 years old in the context of a population-based household survey in Luangwa District (Lusaka Province), Zambia, an area where greater than 75% of households possess at least one insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN). The sensitivity and specificity of an HRP-2 rapid(More)
Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control are widespread but coverage remains inadequate. We developed a Bayesian model using data from 102 national surveys, triangulated against delivery data and distribution reports, to generate year-by-year estimates of four ITN coverage indicators. We explored the impact of two potential 'inefficiencies':(More)
BACKGROUND Low birthweight is a significant risk factor for neonatal and infant death. A prominent cause of low birthweight is infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy. Antimalarial intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) significantly reduce the risk of low birthweight in regions of(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS Roll Back Malaria set the goal of 100% of households in malaria endemic countries in Africa owning an insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) by 2010. Zambia has used mass free distribution campaigns and distribution through antenatal care (ANC) clinics to achieve high coverage. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We conducted a(More)
Hypoxia exerts a profound depressant effect on fetal growth, lowering birth weight, and raising mortality risk. Multigenerational high-altitude populations are relatively protected from this birth-weight decline, leading us to hypothesize that genetic factors were involved. We asked if the amount of high- versus low-altitude ancestry influenced birth weight(More)
Recent progress in malaria control has caused renewed interest in mass drug administration (MDA) as a potential elimination strategy but the evidence base is limited. China has extensive experience with MDA, but it is not well documented. An ecological study was conducted to describe the use of MDA for the control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax in(More)
We conducted a population-based survey to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection among persons older than 1 month in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti during the high malaria transmission season in 2006. Results from PCR for 714 persons showed a prevalence of 3.1% for P. falciparum infection.
Plasmodium falciparum parasites have been endemic to Haiti for >40 years without evidence of chloroquine (CQ) resistance. In 2006 and 2007, we obtained blood smears for rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and filter paper blots of blood from 821 persons by passive and active case detection. P. falciparum infections diagnosed for 79 persons by blood smear or RDT(More)
BACKGROUND In November 2010, Sierra Leone distributed over three million long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) with the objective of providing protection from malaria to individuals in all households in the country. METHODS We conducted a nationally representative survey six months after the mass distribution campaign to evaluate its impact on(More)