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This study investigated the effects of postural threat on the cortical response associated with postural reactions to predictable and unpredictable perturbations to upright stance. Postural threat was manipulated by having individuals stand on an elevated surface to alter the context in which the postural task was performed. Ten healthy young adults(More)
This study was designed to improve the understanding of how standing at elevated surface heights and the associated changes in the visual field affect human balance control. Healthy young adults stood at four different surface heights (ground, 0.8, 1.6 and 3.2 m) under three different visual conditions (eyes open, eyes closed and eyes open with peripheral(More)
Startling acoustic stimuli (SAS) induce the early release of prepared motor responses. The current study used SAS, in conjunction with a classical conditioning paradigm, to examine advanced motor preparation of conditioned postural responses (PRs). After generalized startle responses were induced, standing posture was perturbed in 2 blocks of 15(More)
The different measures used to characterize postural sway are sensitive to variations in sampling duration, yet there remains marked variability and a lack of consistency in this temporal parameter when compared between studies. We investigated the effect of sampling duration on 22 commonly used frequency and time domain measures and stabilogram diffusion(More)
Postural responses (PR) to a balance perturbation differ between the first and subsequent perturbations. One explanation for this first trial effect is that perturbations act as startling stimuli that initiate a generalized startle response (GSR) as well as the PR. Startling stimuli, such as startling acoustic stimuli (SAS), are known to elicit GSRs, as(More)
This study compared halothane and chloroform used with hand or ultrasonic instrumentation to remove gutta-percha and sealer from root canals. Apically extruded debris, residual debris, time for filling removal, and amount of solvent used were determined. The differences in extruded apical debris and radiographically visible residual debris were not(More)
The purpose of the study was to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) requires the sensory feedback generated by balance perturbations in order to trigger postural responses (PRs). In Experiment 1, twenty-one participants experienced toes-up support-surface tilts in two blocks. Control blocks involved unexpected balance perturbations whereas an(More)
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