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Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in vivo undergo large membrane depolarizations known as state transitions. Calcium (Ca) entry into MSNs triggers diverse downstream cellular processes. However, little is known about Ca signals in MSN dendrites and spines and how state transitions influence these signals. Here, we develop a novel approach, combining(More)
Many small synaptic inputs or one large input are needed to influence principal cell firing, whereas individual quanta exert little influence. However, the role of a quantum may be greater for small interneurons with high input resistances. Using dynamic clamp recordings, we found that individual quanta strongly influence rat cerebellar stellate cell(More)
Although neurons often fire in bursts, most of what is known about glutamate signaling and postsynaptic receptor activation is based on experiments using single stimuli. Here we examine the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors by bursts at the parallel fiber to stellate cell synapse. We show that brief stimulus trains generate prolonged AMPA(More)
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the principal cells of the striatum and perform a central role in sensorimotor processing. MSNs must integrate many excitatory inputs located across their dendrites to fire action potentials and enable striatal function. However, the dependence of synaptic responses on the temporal and spatial distribution of these inputs(More)
Recent evidence suggests that internal calcium stores and calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) provide an important source of calcium that drives short-term presynaptic plasticity at central synapses. Here we tested for the involvement of CICR in short-term presynaptic plasticity at six excitatory synapses in acute rat hippocampal and cerebellar brain(More)
NMDA spikes are prominent in the basal dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons and greatly expand their ability to integrate synaptic inputs. Calcium (Ca) signals during these spikes are important for synaptic plasticity and fundamentally depend on activation of NMDA receptors. However, the factors that shape the activation of these receptors and the(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an early onset, heterogeneous group of heritable neuropsychiatric disorders with symptoms that include deficits in social interaction skills, impaired communication abilities, and ritualistic-like repetitive behaviours. One of the hypotheses for a common molecular mechanism underlying ASDs is altered translational(More)
Endocannabinoids serve as retrograde messengers in many brain regions. These diffusible lipophilic molecules are released by postsynaptic cells and regulate presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Here we describe an additional mechanism that mediates the spread of endocannabinoid signaling to distant inhibitory synapses. Depolarization of cerebellar Purkinje(More)
When the synaptic connection between two neurons consists of a small number of release sites, the ability to maintain transmission at high frequencies is limited by vesicle mobilization and by the response of postsynaptic receptors. These two properties were examined at single release sites between granule cells and stellate cells by triggering bursts of(More)
Pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are important for the control of cognitive and emotional behavior. The medial PFC (mPFC) receives diverse long-range excitatory inputs from the midline thalamus, contralateral mPFC, basolateral amygdala, and ventral hippocampus. While axons from these different regions have distinct distributions in the mPFC,(More)