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The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans migrates toward a preferred temperature on a thermal gradient. A candidate neural network for thermotaxis in C. elegans has been identified, but the behavioral strategy implemented by this network is poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether thermal migration is achieved by modulating the probability of turning(More)
A new behavioral assay is described for studying chemosensation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This assay presents three main characteristics: (1) the worm is restrained by gluing, preserving correlates of identifiable behaviors; (2) the amplitude and time course of the stimulus are controlled by the experimenter; and (3) the behavior is recorded(More)
Lateral inhibition mediated by Delta/Notch (Dl/N) signaling is used throughout development to limit the number of initially equivalent cells that adopt a particular fate. Although adjacent cells express both Dl ligand and N receptor, signaling between them ultimately occurs in only one direction. Classically, this has been explained entirely by feedback:(More)
The sensorimotor transformation underlying Caenorhabditis elegans chemotaxis has been difficult to measure directly under normal assay conditions. Thus, key features of this transformation remain obscure, such as its time course and dependence on stimulus amplitude. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the transformation as obtained by(More)
Recent evidence suggests that stochasticism is important for generating cell type diversity. We have identified a novel stochastic fate choice as part of the mechanism by which Delta/Notch (Dl/N) signaling specifies R7 fate in the Drosophila eye. The equivalence of R1/R6/R7 precursors is normally broken by the activation of N, which specifies the R7 fate.(More)
BACKGROUND Neural networks and their function are defined by synapses, which are adhesions specialized for intercellular communication that can be either chemical or electrical. At chemical synapses, transmission between neurons is mediated by neurotransmitters, whereas at electrical synapses, direct ionic and metabolic coupling occur via gap junctions(More)
Three enzymes relevant to signal transduction were compared in replicating, quiescent and senescent human diploid fibroblasts (HDF). These were Ca(2+)-dependent thiol protease (calpain), cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Pk-A), and calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (Pk-C). The amounts of these enzymes in quiescent HDF were slightly greater or the(More)
Identifying the mechanisms by which cells remain irreversibly committed to their fates is a critical step toward understanding and being able to manipulate development and homeostasis. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are chromatin modifiers that maintain transcriptional silencing, and loss of PcG genes causes widespread derepression of many developmentally(More)
Mutations involving the Tol-Pal complex of Escherichia coli result in a subtle phenotype in which cells chain when grown under low-salt conditions. Here, the nonpolar deletion of individual genes encoding the cytoplasmic membrane-associated components of the complex (TolQ, TolR, TolA) produced a similar phenotype. Surprisingly, the overexpression of one of(More)
Gap junctions underlie electrical synaptic transmission between neurons. Generally perceived as simple intercellular channels, "electrical synapses" have demonstrated to be more functionally sophisticated and structurally complex than initially anticipated. Electrical synapses represent an assembly of multiple molecules, consisting of channels, adhesion(More)
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