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The expression of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) and H19 genes is imprinted. Although these neighbouring genes share an enhancer, H19 is expressed only from the maternal allele, and Igf2 only from the paternally inherited allele. A region of paternal-specific methylation upstream of H19 appears to be the site of an epigenetic mark that is required(More)
Insulators, first identified in Drosophila, are DNA sequence elements that shield a promoter from nearby regulatory elements. We have previously reported that a DNA sequence at the 5' end of the chicken beta-globin locus can function as an insulator. It is capable of shielding a reporter gene from the activating effects of a nearby mouse beta-globin locus(More)
An insulator is a DNA sequence that can act as a barrier to the influences of neighboring cis-acting elements, preventing gene activation, for example, when located between an enhancer and a promoter. We have identified a 42 bp fragment of the chicken beta-globin insulator that is both necessary and sufficient for enhancer blocking activity in human cells.(More)
The 1.2-kb DNA sequence element (5'HS4) at the 5' end of the chicken beta-globin locus has the two defining properties of an insulator: it prevents an "external" enhancer from acting on a promoter when placed between them ("enhancer blocking") and acts as a barrier to chromosomal position effect (CPE) when it surrounds a stably integrated reporter. We(More)
It is thought that insulators demarcate transcriptionally and structurally independent chromatin domains. Insulators are detected by their ability to block enhancer-promoter interactions in a directional manner, and protect a transgene from position effects. Most studies are performed in stably transformed cells or organisms. Here we analyze the(More)
Boundaries in chromatin are often marked by the presence of insulator elements. New results in Drosophila have identified an insulator with a proven boundary function essential for development. Other studies suggest a connection between the activity of some insulators and Drosophila trithorax-Group and Polycomb-Group genes. Several examples of vertebrate(More)
Imprinted methylation of the paternal Rasgrf1 allele in mice occurs at a differentially methylated domain (DMD) 30 kbp 5' of the promoter. A repeated sequence 3' of the DMD regulates imprinted methylation, which is required for imprinted expression. Here we identify the mechanism by which methylation controls imprinting. The DMD is an enhancer blocker that(More)
A coordinated functional genomics program was implemented to identify secreted polypeptides with therapeutic applications in the treatment of diabetes. Secreted factors were predicted from a diverse expressed-sequence tags (EST) database, representing >1,000 cDNA libraries, using a combination of bioinformatic algorithms. Subsequently, approximately 8,000(More)
We show that the 3' boundary of the chicken beta-globin locus bears striking structural similarities to the 5' boundary. In erythroid cells a clear transition in DNase I sensitivity of chromatin at the 3' end of the locus is observed, the location of this transition is marked by a constitutive DNase I hypersensitive site (HS), and DNA spanning this site has(More)