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Though many individual transcription factors are known to regulate hematopoietic differentiation, major aspects of the global architecture of hematopoiesis remain unknown. Here, we profiled gene expression in 38 distinct purified populations of human hematopoietic cells and used probabilistic models of gene expression and analysis of cis-elements in gene(More)
Therapy-resistant microenvironments represent a major barrier toward effective elimination of disseminated malignancies. Here, we show that select microenvironments can underlie resistance to antibody-based therapy. Using a humanized model of treatment refractory B cell leukemia, we find that infiltration of leukemia cells into the bone marrow rewires the(More)
The discovery of host-microRNA (miRNA) targets in the genomes of many vertebrate viruses indicates that the corresponding miRNAs are a part of the host's innate antiviral defense. However, given that viruses evolve much faster than host miRNAs, it is surprising that viral variants lacking these 'antiviral' miRNA target sequences have not become established.(More)
Increasing demand for human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in clinical and research applications necessitates expansion of HSCs in vitro. Before these cells can be used they must be carefully evaluated to assess their stem cell activity. Here, we expanded cord blood CD34(+) CD133(+) cells in a defined medium containing angiopoietin like 5 and insulin-like(More)
Humanized mice are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to various lineages of human blood cells throughout the life of the mouse. This article reviews recent advances in the generation of humanized mice, focusing on practical considerations. We discuss features of different immunodeficient recipient mouse(More)
Clinical and preclinical applications of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are often limited by scarcity of cells. Expanding human HSCs to increase their numbers while maintaining their stem cell properties has therefore become an important area of research. Here, we report a robust HSC coculture system wherein cord blood CD34(+) CD133(+) cells were(More)
Cellular life depends upon the preservation and transmission of genetic material. Double stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) cause catastrophic gene loss in cell division and must be promptly and accurately repaired. In eukaryotes DSBs may be repaired by either non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), single strand annealing or homologous recombination (HR). Vertebrate(More)
Although numerous mouse models of B-cell malignancy have been developed via the enforced expression of defined oncogenic lesions, the feasibility of generating lineage-defined human B-cell malignancies using mice reconstituted with modified human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unclear. In fact, whether human cells can be transformed as readily as(More)
DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is part of the eukaryotic DNA double strand break repair pathway and as such is crucial for maintenance of genomic stability, as well as for V(D)J (variable-diversity-joining) recombination. The catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) belongs to the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase-like kinase (PIKK) superfamily and(More)