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Loosening of cell walls is an important developmental process in key stages of the plant life cycle, including seed germination, elongation growth, and fruit ripening. Here, we report direct in vivo evidence for hydroxyl radical ((*)OH)-mediated cell wall loosening during plant seed germination and seedling growth. We used electron paramagnetic resonance(More)
Appropriate responses of seeds and fruits to environmental factors are key traits that control the establishment of a species in a particular ecosystem. Adaptation of germination to abiotic stresses and changing environmental conditions is decisive for fitness and survival of a species. Two opposing forces provide the basic physiological mechanism for the(More)
The evolution of the seed represents a remarkable life-history transition for photosynthetic organisms. Here, we review the recent literature and historical understanding of how and why seeds evolved. Answering the 'how' question involves a detailed understanding of the developmental morphology and anatomy of seeds, as well as the genetic programs that(More)
*Seeds can enter a state of dormancy, in which they do not germinate under optimal environmental conditions. Dormancy can be broken during seed after-ripening in the low-hydrated state. *By screening enhancer trap lines of Arabidopsis, we identified a role for the NADPH-oxidase AtrbohB in after-ripening. Semiquantitative PCR was used to investigate AtrbohB(More)
The micropylar endosperm cap covering the radicle in the mature seeds of most angiosperms acts as a constraint that regulates seed germination. Here, we report on a comparative seed biology study with the close Brassicaceae relatives Lepidium sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana showing that ethylene biosynthesis and signaling regulate seed germination by a(More)
Comparative biology includes the comparison of transcriptome and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data sets in a range of species to detect evolutionarily conserved and divergent processes. Transcript abundance analysis of target genes by qRT-PCR requires a highly accurate and robust workflow. This includes reference genes with high expression(More)
The control of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germination by plant hormones was studied by comparing fruits and seeds. Treatment of sugar beet fruits and seeds with gibberellins, brassinosteroids, auxins, cytokinins, and jasmonates or corresponding hormone biosynthesis inhibitors did not appreciably affect radicle emergence of fruits or seeds. By contrast,(More)
Seed dormancy is genetically determined with substantial environmental influence mediated, at least in part, by the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA-related transcription factor ABI3/VP1 (ABA INSENSITIVE3/VIVIPAROUS1) is widespread among green plants. Alternative splicing of its transcripts appears to be involved in regulating seed dormancy, but(More)
The completion of germination in Lepidium sativum and other endospermic seeds (e.g. Arabidopsis [Arabidopsis thaliana]) is regulated by two opposing forces, the growth potential of the radicle (RAD) and the resistance to this growth from the micropylar endosperm cap (CAP) surrounding it. We show by puncture force measurement that the CAP progressively(More)
Germination of endospermic seeds is partly regulated by the micropylar endosperm, which acts as constraint to radicle protrusion. Gibberellin (GA) signalling pathways control coat-dormancy release, endosperm weakening, and organ expansion during seed germination. Three GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) GA receptors are known in Arabidopsis thaliana:(More)