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The evaluation of uncertainty is relatively new in environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA). It provides useful information to assess the reliability of LCA-based decisions and to guide future research toward reducing uncertainty. Most uncertainty studies in LCA quantify only one type of uncertainty, i.e., uncertainty due to input data (parameter(More)
Toxicity potentials are standard values used in life cycle assessment (LCA) to enable a comparison of toxic impacts between substances. In most cases, toxicity potentials are calculated with multi-media fate models. Until now, unrealistic system settings were used for these calculations. The present paper outlines an improved model to calculate toxicity(More)
Chemical fate, effect, and damage should be accounted for in the analysis of human health impacts by toxic chemicals in life-cycle assessment (LCA). The goal of this article is to present a new method to derive human damage and effect factors of toxic pollutants, starting from a lognormal dose-response function. Human damage factors are expressed as(More)
This paper outlines a procedure that quantifies the impact of different sources of spatial variability and uncertainty on ecological risk estimates. The procedure is illustrated in a case study that estimates the risks of cadmium for a little owl (Athene noctua vidalli) living in a Dutch river flood plain along the river Rhine. A geographical information(More)
To analyze the influence of environmental heterogeneity on heavy metal exposure concentrations for terrestrial vertebrates in river floodplains, a spatially explicit exposure model has been constructed (SpaCE-model: Spatially explicit cumulative exposure model). This model simulates the environmental use of individual organisms by selecting model cells to(More)
Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations.(More)
This paper discusses and summarizes the major conclusions of the special issue entitled ‘Living rivers: trends and challenges in science and management’ of Hydrobiologia/Developments in Hydrobiology. It is structured along three lines: (1) Functioning of river systems; (2) Ecological rehabilitation of river systems; (3) Challenges and obstacles to(More)
UNLABELLED Poor air quality in schools has been associated with adverse health effects. Indoor air quality can be improved by increasing ventilation. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different interventions to improve ventilation behavior in primary schools. We used indoor CO(2) concentrations as an indicator. In 81 classes of(More)
The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories "energy production", "material production", "transport", and(More)
Nanoparticles of TiO2, ZrO2, AL2O3, CeO2, fullerene (C60), single-walled carbon nanotubes, and polymethylmethacrylate were tested for ecotoxic effects using one or more ecotoxicity endpoints: Microtox (bacteria), pulse-amplitude modulation (algae), Chydotox (crustaceans), and Biolog (soil enzymes). No appreciable effects were observed at nominal(More)