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The gap junctional protein connexin32 is expressed in hepatocytes, exocrine pancreatic cells, Schwann cells, and other cell types. We have inactivated the connexin32 gene by homologous recombination in the mouse genome and have generated homozygous connexin32-deficient mice that were viable and fertile but weighed on the average approximately 17% less than(More)
Mice that harbor a targeted homozygous defect in the gene coding for the gap junctional protein connexin26 died in utero during the transient phase from early to midgestation. From day 10 post coitum onwards, development of homozygous embryos was retarded, which led to death around day 11 post coitum. Except for growth retardation, no gross morphological(More)
Connexins are subunits of gap junction channels, which mediate the direct transfer of ions, second messenger molecules and other metabolites between contacting cells. Gap junctions are thought to be involved in tissue homeostasis, embryonic development and the control of cell proliferation [1,2]. It has also been suggested that the loss of intercellular(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Experimental evidence indicates that glutamate receptor antagonists may limit tumor growth. This study explores expression of glutamate receptor subunits in pediatric CNS tumors. Samples from eight ependymomas, four glioblastomas, six medulloblastomas and eight(More)
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a signaling receptor protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily implicated in multiple pathologies. It binds a diverse repertoire of ligands, but the structural basis for the interaction of different ligands is not well understood. We earlier showed that carboxylated glycans on the V-domain of RAGE(More)
An intact immune system is essential to prevent the development and progression of neoplastic cells in a process termed immune surveillance. During this process the innate and the adaptive immune systems closely cooperate and especially T cells play an important role to detect and eliminate tumor cells. Due to the mechanism of central tolerance the(More)
Norovirus (NV) 3D(pol) is a non-structural protein predicted to play an essential role in the replication of the NV genome. In this study, the characteristics of NV 3D(pol) activity and initiation of RNA synthesis have been examined in vitro. Recombinant NV 3D(pol), as well as a 3D(pol) active-site mutant were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. NV(More)
In the present study, we have analyzed the direct effects of cytokines, which mediate the acute-phase response in liver, on connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication in immortalized MHSV12 mouse hepatocytes. When these cells were stimulated for 24 h with interleukin 1 and interleukin 6, the amount of connexin26 (Cx26) mRNA increased(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in men. The prostate stem cell Ag (PSCA) is a promising target for immunotherapy of advanced disease. Based on a novel mAb directed to PSCA, we established and compared a series of murine and humanized anti-CD3-anti-PSCA single-chain bispecific Abs. Their capability to redirect T cells for killing(More)
BACKGROUND There is still a need for new therapeutic options against prostate cancer. Conventional single-chain bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), that directly cross-link T cells and tumor cells, hold great potential for efficient tumor treatment. However, rapid development of novel bsAbs is hampered by laborious optimization to improve their efficacy and(More)