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The alpha-Gal trisaccharide Gal(alpha)(1-->3)Galbeta(1-->4)GlcNAc 11 was synthesized on a homogeneously soluble polymeric support (polyethylene glycol, PEG) by use of a multi-enzyme system consisting of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.38), alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.151), sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase (EC(More)
Diastereoselective reduction of diketones with Lactobacillus kefir DSM 20587 was examined. The reduction of both oxo-functions proceeded highly diastereoselectively. (2 R,5 R)-Hexanediol 3 was produced starting from (2,5)-hexanedione 1 in quantitative yields with enantiomeric excess >99% and diastereomeric excess >99%. The reaction conditions were(More)
A kinetic resolution process for the production of chiral amines was developed using an enzyme-membrane reactor (EMR) and a hollow-fiber membrane contactor with (S)-specific omega-transaminases (omega-TA) from Vibrio fluvialis JS17 and Bacillus thuringiensis JS64. The substrate solution containing racemic amine and pyruvate was recirculated through the EMR(More)
Oxidations of alcohols by alcohol dehydrogenases often suffer from low conversions and slow reaction rates due to severe product inhibition. This can be overcome by continuous product extraction, because only the concentrations, but not the kinetic parameters, can be changed. As a consequence, it is favorable to apply a differential circulation reactor with(More)
In this article we study a model for the evolution of the spectral sensitivity of visual receptors for agents in a continuous virtual environment. The model uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve the agent sensors along with the control of the agents by requiring the agents to solve certain tasks in the simulation environment. The properties of the evolved(More)
Whole-cell reduction of (2,5)-hexanedione to yield highly enantiopure (5R)-hydroxyhexane-2-one (enantiomeric excess >99%) with Lactobacillus kefiri DSM 20587 was investigated. Cell immobilisation with sodium cellulose sulphate was chosen as the most suitable encapsulation matrix, giving an immobilisation yield of 40%. Despite the lowered biocatalytic(More)
The electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide via reduction of dissolved oxygen was carried out in a three-dimensional electrochemical cell using graphite grains as cathode material and combined with the enantioselective oxidation of thioanisole to (R)-methylphenylsulfoxide catalyzed by Chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago. The relevant parameters for(More)
In this paper we develop a model for the evolution of the spectral sensitivity of visual receptors for agents in a virtual environment. Using a Genetic Algorithm we evolve the spectral characteristics of the sensors along with the agent control mechanism by requiring the agents to nd certain objects with a given emission spectrum. The present experiments(More)
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