Achilleas S. Frangakis

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The shear-responsive transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is a critical regulator of endothelial gene expression patterns induced by atheroprotective flow. As microRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally control gene expression in many pathogenic and physiological processes, we investigated the regulation of miRNAs by KLF2 in endothelial cells.(More)
Electron tomography is a powerful technique capable of giving unique insights into the three-dimensional structural organization of pleomorphic biological objects. However, visualization and interpretation of the resulting volumetric data are hampered by an extremely low signal-to-noise ratio, especially when ice-embedded biological specimens are(More)
Cryo-electron tomography (CET) is currently the only three-dimensional imaging technique capable of visualizing macromolecules in their cellular context at close-to-native conditions with a resolution in the nanometer range. An important component for the analysis of the data is their classification, which should discriminate among various macromolecules,(More)
The aggregation of proteins as a result of intrinsic or environmental stress may be cytoprotective, but is also linked to pathophysiological states and cellular ageing. We analysed the principles of aggregate formation and the cellular strategies to cope with aggregates in Escherichia coli using fluorescence microscopy of thermolabile reporters, EM(More)
The genome of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is among the smallest found in self-replicating organisms. To study the basic principles of bacterial proteome organization, we used tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) in a proteome-wide screen. The analysis revealed 62 homomultimeric and 116 heteromultimeric soluble protein complexes, of which the(More)
Electron tomography of vitrified cells is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging technique that opens up new vistas for exploring the supramolecular organization of the cytoplasm. We applied this technique to Dictyostelium cells, focusing on the actin cytoskeleton. In actin networks reconstructed without prior removal of membranes or extraction of soluble(More)
Although the formation of 30-nm chromatin fibers is thought to be the most basic event of chromatin compaction, it remains controversial because high-resolution imaging of chromatin in living eukaryotic cells had not been possible until now. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections is a relatively new technique, which enables direct high-resolution(More)
Evidence has accumulated recently that not only eukaryotes but also bacteria can have a cytoskeleton. We used cryo-electron tomography to study the three-dimensional structure of Spiroplasma melliferum cells in a close-to-native state at approximately 4-nanometer resolution. We showed that these cells possess two types of filaments arranged in three(More)
Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma lack obvious homologs of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cytoskeletal, as well as motility-related genes (except FtsZ). Nevertheless, they maintain characteristic cell shapes and show adhesion and gliding abilities on both artificial surfaces and cells. Earlier genetic, biochemical, and electron microscopic analyses have shown(More)
Desmosomes are cadherin-based adhesive intercellular junctions, which are present in tissues such as heart and skin. Despite considerable efforts, the molecular interfaces that mediate adhesion remain obscure. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography of vitreous sections from human epidermis to visualize the three-dimensional molecular architecture of(More)