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A vast amount of circumstantial evidence implicates oxygen-derived free radicals (especially superoxide and hydroxyl radical) and high-energy oxidants (such as peroxynitrite) as mediators of inflammation, shock, and ischemia/reperfusion injury. The aim of this review is to describe recent developments in the field of oxidative stress research. The first(More)
The polymorphic cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYPs) 2C9, 2C19 and 2D6 metabolise many important drugs, as well as other xenobiotics. Their polymorphism gives rise to important interindividual and interethnic variability in the metabolism and disposition of several therapeutic agents and may cause differences in the clinical response to these drugs. In this(More)
1. Nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite, formed from NO and superoxide anion, poly (ADP-ribole) synthetase have been implicated as mediators of neuronal damage following focal ischaemia. Here we have investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment in Mongolian gerbils subjected to cerebral ischaemia. 2. Treatment of gerbils with NAC (20 mg kg(-1)(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the effect of genistein, a phytoestrogen derived from a soy diet with a flavonoid chemical structure, on endothelial dysfunction induced by estrogen deficiency in rats. METHODS Female mature Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX rats). Sham-operated animals (Sham OVX rats) were used as controls.(More)
PURPOSE There is little evidence concerning adverse drug events (ADEs) in outpatients and related hospital admissions. In Italy, only one investigation was conducted on this important health issue. We therefore carried out a study to determine ADE incidence and ADE-related hospital admissions among emergency department (ED) visits, and to identify the risk(More)
BACKGROUND The use of nephrotoxic drugs can further worsening renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is therefore imperative to explore prescribing practices that can negatively affect CKD patients. AIM To analyze the use of nephrotoxic drugs in CKD patients in a general population of Southern Italy during the years 2006-2011. (More)
Gentamicin is an antibiotic effective against Gram-negative infection, whose clinical use is limited by its nephrotoxicity. Oxygen free radicals are considered to be important mediators of gentamicin-mediated nephrotoxicity, but the exact nature of the radical in question is not known with certainty. We have investigated the potential role of superoxide in(More)
OBJECTIVE Splanchnic artery occlusion shock (SAO) causes an enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to the pathophysiology of shock. Here we have investigated the effects of n-acetylcysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger, in rats subjected to SAO shock. METHODS AND RESULTS Treatment of rats with NAC (applied at 20 mg/kg, 5(More)
BACKGROUND Nonadherence to antihypertensive treatment is a common problem in cardiovascular prevention and may influence prognosis. We explored predictors of adherence to antihypertensive treatment and the association of adherence with acute cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS Using data obtained from 400 Italian primary care physicians providing(More)
Erythropoietin prevents in vitro glutamate-induced neuronal death and could play a role in the central nervous system. We investigated the in vivo effects of recombinant human erythropoietin after intraperitoneal (i.p.; 25-100 U) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.; 0.25-25 U) administration on survival, brain malonildialdehyde (MDA) levels, brain edema,(More)