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Inhibition of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) improves cognitive functions in hypertensive patients. However, role of AT1 and AT2 receptors in memory impairment due to cholinergic hypofunction is unexplored. This study investigated the role of AT1 and AT2 receptors in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cholinergic neurotransmission, and cerebral energy metabolism in(More)
Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1/2A (PP2A). Inhibition of PP2A leads to hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein. Hyperphosphorylated Tau protein is present in intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles a characteristic feature of neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of OKA causes(More)
PURPOSE Stroke still remains a challenge for the researchers and scientists for developing ideal drug. Several new drugs are being evaluated showing excellent results in preclinical studies but when tested in clinical trials, they failed. Many herbal drugs in different indigenous system of medicine claim to have beneficial effects but not extensively(More)
Studies have shown the involvement of angiotensin II (Ang II) in neurobehavioral aspects, but the exact role of Ang II in memory is still ambiguous. This study explored the effect of central Ang II on spatial memory along with cholinergic neurotransmission, brain energy metabolism, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in(More)
PURPOSE Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Nigella sativa (400 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days were administered and evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. After 24 h of(More)
Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been(More)
Preclinical and clinical studies indicated involvement of renin angiotensin system (RAS) in memory functions. However, exact role of RAS in cognition is still ambiguous. Our aim was to explore how angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) modulates memory in experimental model of memory impairment. Memory deficit was induced by intracerebroventricular(More)
Mitochondrial abnormalities have been identified in a large proportion of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently we have reported that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of okadaic acid (OKA) causes memory impairment in rat. However involvement of mitochondrial function in OKA induced memory impairment and neuronal damage has not been determined.(More)
Evidences indicate that inhibition of central Renin angiotensin system (RAS) ameliorates memory impairment in animals and humans. Earlier we have reported involvement of central angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in streptozotocin induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. The present study investigated the role of central ACE in cholinergic(More)
The role of zinc (Zn) in anxiety, depression and psychosis was studied in rodents. Zn was administered at doses of 15 and 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 7 days. Both doses of Zn reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming time in the modified forced swim test. In the elevated plus maze test, increases in the number of open arm entries and time(More)