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Inhibition of renin–angiotensin system (RAS) improves cognitive functions in hypertensive patients. However, role of AT1 and AT2 receptors in memory impairment due to cholinergic hypofunction is unexplored. This study investigated the role of AT1 and AT2 receptors in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cholinergic neurotransmission, and cerebral energy metabolism in(More)
Okadaic acid (OKA) is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1/2A (PP2A). Inhibition of PP2A leads to hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein. Hyperphosphorylated Tau protein is present in intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles a characteristic feature of neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of OKA causes(More)
PURPOSE Stroke still remains a challenge for the researchers and scientists for developing ideal drug. Several new drugs are being evaluated showing excellent results in preclinical studies but when tested in clinical trials, they failed. Many herbal drugs in different indigenous system of medicine claim to have beneficial effects but not extensively(More)
CONTEXT Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Most of the synthetic anti-obesity drugs have failed to manage the obesity due to either ineffectiveness or adverse effect. The research of prominent chemical constituents from herbal for the management of obesity has greatly increased. OBJECTIVE The main objective of the present study was intended to(More)
PURPOSE Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Nigella sativa (400 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days were administered and evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. After 24 h of(More)
Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been(More)
Diabetic cardiomyopathy plays a major role in morbidity and mortality among cardiovascular disorder-related complications. This study was designed to explore long-term benefits of Levosimendan (LEVO) along with Ramipril and Insulin. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was induced using streptozotocin (STZ) at the dose of 25 mg/kg/body weight/day for three consecutive(More)
Mitochondrial abnormalities have been identified in a large proportion of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently we have reported that intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of okadaic acid (OKA) causes memory impairment in rat. However involvement of mitochondrial function in OKA induced memory impairment and neuronal damage has not been determined.(More)
PURPOSE To discuss the pharmacotherapeutic aspects of Mirabegron which is a first-in class novel β3 receptor agonist drug recently approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a computerized search of the MEDLINE/PUBMED databases with the word Mirabegron, β3 receptor(More)
INTRODUCTION Doxorubicin (DXR) is one of the most effective and widely used anthracycline antibiotics. However, its clinical application is hampered by toxic effects in many organs. Nephrotoxicity is one of the major side effects of anthracycline antibiotics. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of aliskiren (a direct renin(More)