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It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such(More)
BACKGROUND We estimated the effects of rainfall and temperature on the number of non-cholera diarrhoea cases and identified population factors potentially affecting vulnerability to the effect of the climate factors in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHODS Weekly rainfall, temperature and number of hospital visits for non-cholera diarrhoea were analysed by(More)
We present here quantitative evidence for an increased role of interannual climate variability on the temporal dynamics of an infectious disease. The evidence is based on time-series analyses of the relationship between El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and cholera prevalence in Bangladesh (formerly Bengal) during two different time periods. A strong and(More)
ETEC is an underrecognized but extremely important cause of diarrhea in the developing world where there is inadequate clean water and poor sanitation. It is the most frequent bacterial cause of diarrhea in children and adults living in these areas and also the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea. ETEC diarrhea is most frequently seen in children,(More)
We characterized 1,534 rotavirus (RV) strains collected in Bangladesh from 1992 to 1997 to assess temporal changes in G type and to study the most common G and P types using reverse transcription-PCR, oligonucleotide probe hybridization, and monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay. Results from this study combined with our previous findings from 1987(More)
Attempts to explain the clear seasonality of rotavirus infections have been made by relating disease incidence to climate factors; however, few studies have disentangled the effects of weather from other factors that might cause seasonality. We investigated the relationships between hospital visits for rotavirus diarrhoea and temperature, humidity and river(More)
We evaluated patterns of health care use for diarrhea among children 0-59 months of age residing in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, using a baseline survey conducted during May-June 2007 to inform the design of a planned diarrheal etiology case/control study. Caretakers of 7.4% of 1,128 children reported a diarrheal illness in the preceding 14 days; among 95 children(More)
Aeromonads are causative agents of a number of human infections. Even though aeromonads have been isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, their etiological role in gastroenteritis is unclear. In spite of a number of virulence factors produced by Aeromonas species, their association with diarrhea has not been clearly linked. Recently, we have(More)
The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, is a major center for research into diarrheal diseases. The center treats more than 100,000 patients a year. To obtain useful information representative of all patients, a surveillance system in which a 4% systematic sample of all patients is studied in detail, including etiological(More)
The relationship among (i) the local incidence of cholera, (ii) the prevalence in the aquatic environment of Vibrio cholerae, and (iii) bacterial viruses that attack potentially virulent O1 and O139 serogroup strains of this organism (cholera phages) was studied in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Over nearly a 3-year period, we found that significantly more(More)