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Recently, epidemiologic studies of developmental neurotoxicology have been challenged to increase focus on co-exposure to multiple toxicants. Earlier reports, including our own work in Bangladesh, have demonstrated independent associations between neurobehavioral function and exposure to both arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in school-aged children. Our(More)
BACKGROUND Several reports indicate that drinking water arsenic (WAs) and manganese (WMn) are associated with children's intellectual function. Very little is known, however, about possible associations with other neurologic outcomes such as motor function. METHODS We investigated the associations of WAs and WMn with motor function in 304 children in(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies employing cell culture and animal models have suggested that arsenic (As) exposure induces global DNA hypomethylation. However, As has been associated with global DNA hypermethylation in human study populations. We hypothesized that this discrepancy may reflect a nonlinear relationship between As dose and DNA methylation. (More)
BACKGROUND In vitro and rodent studies have shown that arsenic (As) exposure can deplete glutathione (GSH) and induce oxidative stress. GSH is the primary intracellular antioxidant; it donates an electron to reactive oxygen species, thus producing glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Cysteine (Cys) and cystine (CySS) are the predominant thiol/disulfide redox(More)
BACKGROUND The main objective of this study was the phytochemical characterization of four indigenous essential oils obtained from spices and their antibacterial activities against the multidrug resistant clinical and soil isolates prevalent in Pakistan, and ATCC reference strains. METHODS Chemical composition of essential oils from four Pakistani spices(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic exposure to well water arsenic (As) remains a major rural health challenge in Bangladesh and some other developing countries. Many mitigation programs have been implemented to reduce As exposure, although evaluation studies for these efforts are rare in the literature. OBJECTIVES In this study we estimated associations between a(More)
BACKGROUND Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common neurological diseases. Few prevalence studies have been conducted in South Asia, and none in Bangladesh, one of the most populated countries in the world. We estimated the prevalence of ET in a population-based study in Araihazar, Bangladesh. METHODS As part of an in-person evaluation in a health(More)
BACKGROUND Exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, with susceptibility differing by sex. Although evidence from in vitro studies suggests that arsenic alters post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs), evidence in humans is limited. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to determine: a) if arsenic exposure is(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the occurrence of bacterial pathogens responsible for diarrhea and to engender information regarding the effectiveness of commonly used antibiotic against diarrhea. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted between April and July 2014. Samples were collected from the Divisional Headquarter and Allied Hospital, Faisalabad,(More)
BACKGROUND Arsenic (As) exposure from drinking water is associated with modest intellectual deficits in childhood. It is not known whether reducing exposure is associated with improved intelligence. OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine whether reducing As exposure is associated with improved child intellectual outcomes. METHODS Three hundred three(More)