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We conducted a genome-wide survey of Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposons and identified a total of 331 insertions, including 217 Ty1, 34 Ty2, 41 Ty3, 32 Ty4, and 7 Ty5 elements. Eighty-five percent of insertions were solo long terminal repeats (LTRs) or LTR fragments. Overall, retrotransposon sequences constitute >377 kb or 3.1% of the genome.(More)
More than one million copies of the approximately 300-bp Alu element are interspersed throughout the human genome, with up to 75% of all known genes having Alu insertions within their introns and/or UTRs. Transcribed Alu sequences can alter splicing patterns by generating new exons, but other impacts of intragenic Alu elements on their host RNA are largely(More)
L1 elements are highly repeated mammalian DNA sequences whose structure suggests dispersal by retrotransposition. A consensus L1 element encodes a protein with sequence similarity to known reverse transcriptases. The second open reading frame from the human L1 element L1.2A was expressed as a fusion protein targeted to Ty1 virus-like particles in(More)
Using a selective screening strategy to enrich for active L1 elements, we isolated 13 full-length elements from a human genomic library. We tested these and two previously-isolated L1s (L1.3 and L1.4) for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and the ability to retrotranspose in HeLa cells. Of the 13 newly-isolated L1s, eight had RT activity and three were(More)
Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired by either homology-dependent or homology-independent pathways. Nonhomologous repair mechanisms have been relatively less well studied, despite their potential importance in generating chromosomal rearrangements. We have developed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based assay to identify and characterize(More)
Retroviruses undergo a high frequency of genetic alterations during the process of copying their RNA genomes. However, little is known about the replication fidelity of other elements that transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. The complete sequence of 29 independently integrated copies of the yeast retrotransposon Ty1 (173,043 nt) was(More)
Integrase (IN) and reverse transcriptase (RT) play a central role in transposition of retroelements. The mechanism of integration by IN and the steps of the replication process mediated by RT are briefly described here. Recently, active recombinant forms of Ty1 IN and RT have been obtained. This has allowed a more detailed understanding of their biochemical(More)
Ty1 retrotransposition, like retroviral replication, is a complex series of events requiring reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, RNA-primed minus- and plus-strand DNA synthesis, multiple strand transfers, and precise cleavages of the template and primers by RNase H. In this report, we examine the structure of in vivo Ty1 replication intermediates,(More)
The tandemly arrayed miniexon genes of the trypanosomatid Crithidia fasciculata are interrupted at specific sites by multiple copies of an inserted element. The element, termed Crithidia retrotransposable element 1 (CRE1), is flanked by 29-base-pair target site duplications and contains a long 3'-terminal poly(dA) stretch. A single 1,140-codon reading frame(More)
Long terminal repeat-containing retrotransposons encode reverse transcriptases (RTs) that replicate their RNA into integratable, double-stranded DNA. A mutant version of the RT from Saccharomyces cerevisiae retrotransposon Ty1, in which one of the three active site aspartates has been changed to asparagine (D211N), is still capable of in vitro(More)