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  • D Hu, A Amsel
  • 1995
Vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) is a term that Muenzinger and Tolman used to describe the rat's conflict-like behavior before responding to choice. Recently, VTE was proposed as a mechanism alternative to the concept of "cognitive map" in accounts of hippocampal function. That is, many phenomena of impaired learning and memory related to hippocampal(More)
BACKGROUND The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a subtype of glutamate receptor, is essential for normal neurodevelopment. The brain growth spurt, which is both prenatal and postnatal in the rat, is a time when the brain is especially sensitive to the effects of a teratogen, such as alcohol. Changes in NMDAR function after early perinatal exposure to(More)
The effects of dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) on vicarious trial-and-error (VTE), and on simultaneous olfactory discrimination learning and its reversal, were observed in weanling rats. The term VTE was used by Tolman (The determiners of behavior at a choice point. Psychol. Rev. 1938;46:318-336), who described it as conflict-like behavior at a choice-point in(More)