Abraham Shaked

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The mammalian intestinal tract is colonized by trillions of beneficial commensal bacteria that are anatomically restricted to specific niches. However, the mechanisms that regulate anatomical containment remain unclear. Here, we show that interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are present in intestinal tissues of healthy mammals.(More)
Viral persistence is associated with hierarchical antiviral CD8 T cell exhaustion with increased programmed death-1 (PD-1) expression. In HCV persistence, HCV-specific CD8 T cells from the liver (the site of viral replication) display increased PD-1 expression and a profound functional impairment that is not reversed by PD-1 blockade alone. Here, we report(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The immunoinhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) is up-regulated on dysfunctional virus-specific CD8 T cells during chronic viral infections, and blockade of PD-1/PD-ligand (PD-L) interactions can restore their function. As hepatitis C virus (HCV) persists in the liver with immune-mediated disease pathogenesis, we examined the role(More)
BACKGROUND Surgery, percutaneous cholangiography, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) have been used in the management of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation with varied results. We assessed the role of ERCP in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of post-orthotopic liver transplantation biliary complications.(More)
Translational studies in liver transplantation often require an endpoint of graft function or dysfunction beyond graft loss. Prior definitions of early allograft dysfunction (EAD) vary, and none have been validated in a large multicenter population in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) era. We examined an updated definition of EAD to validate(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with recurrent hepatitis C virus infection treated with pegylated interferon (PEG) after liver transplantation can develop severe immune-mediated graft dysfunction (IGD) characterized by plasma cell hepatitis or rejection. METHODS We conducted a multicenter case-control study of 52 liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C to(More)
Six hundred sixty-six patients received 792 liver transplants between February 1, 1984 and September 30, 1991. Biliary reconstruction was by choledochocholedochostomy (CDCD) with T-tube (n = 509) or Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy (CDJ) (n = 283). Twenty-five patients (4%) developed biliary strictures. Anastomotic strictures were more common after CDJ (n =(More)
BACKGROUND The standard test for the diagnosis of acute rejection in kidney transplants is the renal biopsy. Noninvasive tests would be preferable. METHODS We prospectively collected 4300 urine specimens from 485 kidney-graft recipients from day 3 through month 12 after transplantation. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were measured in urinary cells and(More)
Adenoviral vectors have recently been shown to effectively deliver genes into a variety of tissues. Since these vectors have some advantages over the more extensively investigated retroviruses, we studied the effect of two replication-defective adenovectors bearing human wild type tumor suppressor gene p53 (Adp53) and Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic management of biliary fistulas complicating liver transplantation and other hepatobiliary operations. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Surgical therapy has been the traditional approach to large or unresolving biliary fistulas complicating liver transplantation.(More)