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BACKGROUND Statins have anti-inflammatory properties that are independent of their lipid-lowering abilities. We hypothesized that statin therapy before the onset of an acute bacterial infection may have a protective effect against severe sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients treated with statins develop severe sepsis less(More)
Lithium is a unique drug with therapeutic as well as prophylactic value for both manic and depressive phases of manic-depressive illness. The precise mechanisms of its clinical efficacy remain unknown, but there are two main theories of its biochemical action. One proposes that lithium inhibits adrenergically activated adenylate cyclase function whereas the(More)
In a recent study, we found that lithium inhibits the function of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, implicating G proteins as the common site for both the antimanic and antidepressant therapeutic effects of lithium. These findings may also suggest that an altered G protein function is of pathophysiological importance in bipolar affective disorder. In the(More)
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a predominant regulator of the neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses to stress. In addition, numerous studies support autocrine/paracrine roles for this peptide at peripheral sites. CRF and CRF binding sites have been identified in different regions of the central nervous system as well as in the heart,(More)
Bradykinin (BK) is a major potent inflammatory mediator outside the central nervous system. In Alzheimer's disease, BK release and BK receptor expression in brain tissues are upregulated relatively early during the course of the disease. Hence, BK was believed to promote neuroinflammation. However, BK was recently reported to possess anti-inflammatory and(More)
The relationship between proton movement and phosphorylation in Halo-bacterium halobium R1 has been investigated under anaerobic conditions. The light-induced changes in the bacteriorhodopsin are accompanied by proton movements across the membrane which result in pH changes in the suspending medium. The initial alkaline shift is shown to be closely(More)
The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS), including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce(More)
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used for the management of hypertension. All components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have also been identified in the brain. In addition to cytokines, neuromodulators such as ANG II can induce(More)
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