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gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory transmitter in the mammalian brain. This inhibition is mediated by type A (GABA(A)) receptors that are pentameric proteins assembled from 14 different subunits. Although inhibitory synaptic transmission has been studied in the amygdala, the subunit composition of receptors present at different(More)
BACKGROUND Stem cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous teeth (SHED) have the capability to differentiate into neural cells. Neurotrophins including Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) have neurogenesis, neurotrophic, or neuroprotective effects and are expressed in developing(More)
BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized clinically by serious impairment in memory and cognition. Current medications only slow down the dementia progression and the present treatment one-drug one-target paradigm for anti-AD treatment appears to be clinically unsuccessful.(More)
STUDY DESIGN Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in alterations in the regulation of many genes that may influence neuronal death and the subsequent loss of motor function and neuropathic pain. The subtype expression mRNA levels of glycine receptors (GlyRs) after SCI are unknown. METHODS Using real-time reverse transcription PCR, this study analyzed changes(More)
The number of older people who are suffering from memory impairment is increasing among populations throughout the world. Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects about 5% of people over 65 years old. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory, is especially vulnerable to damage in the early stages of AD. Emerging evidence suggests that loss of(More)
The amygdalar complex is a limbic structure that plays a key role in emotional processing and fear conditioning. Although inhibitory transmission in the amygdala is predominately GABA-ergic, neurons of the amygdala are also known to express glycine receptors. The subtype and function of these glycine receptors within the synaptic circuits of the amygdala(More)
The Schwann cells (SCs) may be obtain from nerve biopsies for autologous transplantation. However, it is difficult to obtain sufficient amount of SCs for clinical applications. Human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can be induced to differentiate into Schwann-like cells (S-like cells) and used for autologous transplantation. However, effect of leukemia(More)
Despite being important clinical targets, it is not straightforward to reliably express recombinant trimeric αβγ GABA-A receptors (GABA A Rs) for high-throughput screening. This study therefore sought to devise a simple and reliable means of transiently expressing α1β1γ1 and α1β1γ2 GABA A Rs in HEK293 cells. Expression efficiencies resulting from 5(More)
CCX-CKR (CCRL1) as one of the chemokine receptor-like proteins is a scavenger of CCL19, CCL21, CCL25, and CXCL13 chemokines. Human CCX-CKR is expressed in various tissues. Since HEK 293 cells are used for both transient and stable expression of CCX-CKR gene, it is important to determine endogenous expression of CCX-CKR gene. Therefore, in the current study(More)
A balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmissions in brain is an essential factor for the proper function of the brain. The amino acid gamma-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) is considered as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain. Thus, GABAergic neurons play a key role in regulating behavior. Previous data have revealed the complex subunit(More)