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The Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics that underlie cellular functions such as cell shape changes, migration, and polarity. We found that Smurf1, a HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulated cell polarity and protrusive activity and was required to maintain the transformed morphology and motility of a tumor(More)
Stroma in the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in cancer progression, but how it promotes metastasis is poorly understood. Exosomes are small vesicles secreted by many cell types and enable a potent mode of intercellular communication. Here, we report that fibroblast-secreted exosomes promote breast cancer cell (BCC) protrusive activity and(More)
In the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), E2 enzymes mediate the conjugation of ubiquitin to substrates and thereby control protein stability and interactions. The E2 enzyme hCdc34 catalyzes the ubiquitination of hundreds of proteins in conjunction with the cullin-RING (CRL) superfamily of E3 enzymes. We identified a small molecule termed CC0651 that(More)
Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) receptor kinase inhibitors have a great therapeutic potential. SB431542 is one of the mainly used kinase inhibitors of the TGFβ/Activin pathway receptors, but needs improvement of its EC(50) (EC(50)=1 μM) to be translated to clinical use. A key feature of SB431542 is that it specifically targets receptors from the(More)
The conjugation of ubiquitin to proteins involves a cascade of activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ubiquitin-ligating (E3) type enzymes that commonly signal protein destruction. In TGFbeta signaling the inhibitory protein Smad7 recruits Smurf2, an E3 of the C2-WW-HECT domain class, to the TGFbeta receptor complex to facilitate receptor degradation. Here,(More)
Mono- and polyubiquitylation of proteins are key steps in a wide range of biological processes. However, the molecular mechanisms that mediate these different events are poorly understood. Here, we employed NMR spectroscopy to map a non-covalent ubiquitin binding surface (UBS) on the Smurf ubiquitin ligase HECT domain. Analysis of mutants of the HECT UBS(More)
Ubiquitination of proteins is an abundant modification that controls numerous cellular processes. Many Ubiquitin (Ub) protein ligases (E3s) target both their substrates and themselves for degradation. However, the mechanisms regulating their catalytic activity are largely unknown. The C2-WW-HECT-domain E3 Smurf2 downregulates transforming growth factor-beta(More)
The Rho family of small GTPases plays a key role in the dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton that underlies various important cellular functions such as shape changes, migration, and polarity. We found that Smurf1, a HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase, could specifically target RhoA but not Cdc42 or Rac1 for degradation. Smurf1 interacts with the(More)
A small toolkit of morphogens is used repeatedly to direct development, raising the question of how context dictates interpretation of the same cue. One example is the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathway that in human embryonic stem cells fulfills two opposite functions: pluripotency maintenance and mesendoderm (ME) specification. Using proteomics(More)
As part of a programme to formulate foods to aid the control of diarrhoeal diseases, an improved ogi (the commonest weaning food in Nigeria) named DogiK has been developed. DogiK was produced by using Lactobacillus starter cultures with antimicrobial activity against diarrhoeagenic bacteria and also possessing amylolytic activity. The survival of(More)