Abigail M. Spear

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The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain plays a crucial role in the mammalian innate immune response. Recently, proteins containing TIR domains have been described in bacteria and it has been suggested that these bacterial proteins are involved in subversion of the vertebrate immune system. Here we describe the distribution of TIR-domain proteins among(More)
The Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) domain is an essential component of eukaryotic innate immune signalling pathways. Interaction between TIR domains present in Toll-like receptors and associated adaptors initiates and propagates an immune signalling cascade. Proteins containing TIR domains have also been discovered in bacteria. Studies have(More)
Recent research has highlighted the presence of Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor (TIR)-domain proteins (Tdps) in a range of bacteria, suggested to form interactions with the human adaptor protein MyD88 and inhibit intracellular signaling from Toll-like receptors (TLRs). A Tdp has been identified in Yersinia pestis (YpTdp), a highly pathogenic bacterium(More)
The innate immune system provides the first line of host defence against invading pathogens. Key to upregulation of the innate immune response are Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger a signaling pathway culminating in the production of inflammatory mediators. Central to this TLR signaling(More)
Live attenuated bacteria provide the potential to replace traditional needle-based vaccination with an orally administered vaccine. The heterologous antigen gene is usually transformed as a multi-copy plasmid into the bacterial cell, but plasmids in live bacterial vaccine strains are often unstable, so an alternative approach is to integrate the single-copy(More)
Prevention of extremity war wound infection remains a clinical challenge. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen in delayed infection. We hypothesised that choice of wound dressings may affect bacterial burden over 7 days reflecting the current practice of delayed primary closure of wounds within this timeframe. A randomised controlled trial of 3(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and mediate downstream immune signalling via Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains. TIR domain proteins (Tdps) have been identified in multiple pathogenic bacteria and have recently been implicated as negative regulators of host innate immune activation. A Tdp has been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the(More)
Extremity injury is a significant burden to those injured in explosive incidents and local ischaemia can result in poor functionality in salvaged limbs. This study examined whether blast injury to a limb resulted in a change in endothelial phenotype leading to changes to the surrounding tissue.The hind limbs of terminally anaesthetized rabbits were(More)
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