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Pure-tone and speech most-comfortable-loudness (MCL) levels were determined in noise and quiet. A Bekesy-type tracking task was used to determine the MCLs under all conditions. The subjects (N = 12) tracked their MCLs for five frequencies (250, 500, 1000, 20008, and 4000 Hz) in the presence of four white-noise levels (55, 65, 75, and 85 dB SPL) and in(More)
The effect of masking noise on the temporal summation of loudness is investigated here by performing loudness balances between a standard 500-msec tone burst (1000 Hz at either 20-, 50-, or 80-dB SPL) and either masked or unmasked comparison tone bursts (1000 Hz with durations between 10 and 640 msec). In all but two instances, the obtained functions(More)
Two haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from industrial brine solutions were characterized via molecular, physiological, and in silico metabolic pathway analyses. Genomes from the organisms, designated Halomonas BC1 and BC2, were sequenced; 16S ribosomal subunit-based phylogenetic analysis revealed a high level of similarity to each other and to Halomonas(More)
Siderophores are iron-chelating molecules produced by microbes when intracellular iron concentrations are low. Low iron triggers a cascade of gene activation, allowing the cell to survive due to the synthesis of important proteins involved in siderophore synthesis and transport. Generally, siderophores are classified by their functional groups as(More)
The SKA will be a transformational instrument in the study of our local Universe. In particular, by virtue of its high sensitivity (both to point sources and diffuse low surface brightness emission), angular resolution and the frequency ranges covered, the SKA will undertake a very wide range of astrophysical research in the field of nearby galaxies. By(More)
Context. The 6.7 GHz methanol maser marks an early stage of high–mass star formation, but the origin of this maser is currently a matter of debate. In particular it is unclear whether the maser emission arises in discs, outflows or behind shocks running into rotating molecular clouds. Aims. We investigate which structures the methanol masers trace in the(More)
We have imaged the disc of the young star HL Tau using the VLA at 1.3 cm, with 0.08 ′′ resolution (as small as the orbit of Jupiter). The disc is around half the stellar mass, assuming a canonical gas-mass conversion from the measured mass in large dust grains. A simulation shows that such discs are gravitationally unstable, and can fragment at radii of a(More)
ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS AGN and starbursts at high redshift: High resolution EVN radio observations of the Hubble Deep Field. Abstract. We present deep, wide-field European VLBI Network (EVN) 1.6 GHz observations of the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) region with a resolution of 0.025 arcseconds. Above the 210 µJy/beam (5σ) detection level, the EVN clearly(More)
We have studied the core morphology of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Mrk 273 by combining a high-resolution adaptive optics near-infrared image with an optical image from the Hubble Space Telescope and interferometric radio continuum data, all at spatial resolutions of 150 mas or better. The near-infrared image reveals that the nucleus has two main(More)
Soap Lake, located in Washington State, is a naturally occurring saline and alkaline lake. Several organisms inhabiting this lake have been identified as producers of siderophores that are unique in structure. Bacterial isolates, enriched from Soap Lake sediment and water samples, were screened for siderophore production using both the chrome azurol S (CAS)(More)