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C₄ photosynthesis allows increased photosynthetic efficiency because carbon dioxide (CO₂) is concentrated around the key enzyme RuBisCO. Leaves of C₄ plants exhibit modified biochemistry, cell biology, and leaf development, but despite this complexity, C₄ photosynthesis has evolved independently in at least 45 lineages of plants. We found that two(More)
Plasmodium parasites typically elicit a non-sterile but protective immune response in human host populations, suggesting that the parasites actively modulate normal immunological mechanisms. P-selectin is a cell surface receptor expressed in mammals, that is a known component of the inflammatory response against pathogens and has been previously identified(More)
Invasion of host erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion involves recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive blood form of the parasite. Identifying and characterizing host-parasite interactions is impeded by the biochemical challenges of working with(More)
Diversity at pathogen genetic loci can be driven by host adaptive immune selection pressure and may reveal proteins important for parasite biology. Population-based genome sequencing of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most severe form of malaria, has highlighted two related polymorphic genes called dblmsp and dblmsp2, which encode(More)
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