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Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have a crucial role in the immune system by preventing autoimmunity, limiting immunopathology, and maintaining immune homeostasis. However, they also represent a major barrier to effective anti-tumour immunity and sterilizing immunity to chronic viral infections. The transcription factor Foxp3 has a major role in the(More)
The physiological basis and mechanistic requirements for a large number of functional immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs; high ITAM multiplicity) in the complex of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the invariant signaling protein CD3 remain obscure. Here we found that whereas a low multiplicity of TCR-CD3 ITAMs was sufficient to(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression; mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV (BDNF-KIV) exhibit a depression-like phenotype. We tested our hypothesis that deficits caused by promoter IV deficiency (depression-like behavior, decreased levels of BDNF, and neurogenesis in the hippocampus)(More)
Regulatory T cell (T(reg)) stability has been primarily determined by the maintained expression of the transcription factor Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). However, T(regs) can exhibit instability while maintaining Foxp3 expression, requiring a re-examination of what defines T(reg) stability. Recent work suggests that the establishment and stability of T(regs) is(More)
Regulatory T cells (T regs) play an integral role in the adaptive immune system through suppression of self-reactive immune responses in order to prevent autoim-munity and maintain homeostasis. However, they are deleterious in cancer through suppression of the anti-tumor immune response. In fact, we show that deletion of 50% of T regs results in normal(More)
Consecutive terminal mismatches add thermodynamic stability to RNA duplexes and occur frequently in microRNA-mRNA interactions. Accurate thermodynamic stabilities of consecutive terminal mismatches contribute to the development of specific, high-affinity siRNA therapeutics. Consecutive terminal adenosine mismatches (TAMS) are studied at different salt(More)
The remarkable clinical success of cancer immunotherapies targeting the checkpoint receptors CTLA-4 and PD-1 has generated considerable excitement and emboldened efforts to build on this important foundation. Research efforts are now focused on understanding the mechanism of action of these immunotherapies, identifying new inhibitory mechanisms that could(More)