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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves disabling symptoms of neurologic and psychiatric diseases when medical treatments fail, yet its therapeutic mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus stimulation for essential tremor activates the cortex at short latencies, and that this potential is related to the suppression of(More)
A fundamental technical hurdle in systems neurophysiology has been to record the activity of individual neurons in situ while using microstimulation to activate inputs or outputs. Stimulation artifact at the recording electrode has largely limited the usefulness of combined stimulating and recording to using single stimulation pulses (e.g., orthodromic and(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the treatment of obstructed rat bladders with αlipoic acid (ALA) and silymarin reverses the biochemical and physiological responses to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). A total of 32 adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=8 per group): sham (placebo surgery) animals with no treatment(More)
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