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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves disabling symptoms of neurologic and psychiatric diseases when medical treatments fail, yet its therapeutic mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that ventral intermediate (VIM) nucleus stimulation for essential tremor activates the cortex at short latencies, and that this potential is related to the suppression of(More)
A fundamental technical hurdle in systems neurophysiology has been to record the activity of individual neurons in situ while using microstimulation to activate inputs or outputs. Stimulation artifact at the recording electrode has largely limited the usefulness of combined stimulating and recording to using single stimulation pulses (e.g., orthodromic and(More)
A new recording array system has been developed to record multi-unit activity in rabbit retina. The array consists of individually laid down layers of carbon fiber or tungsten microelectrodes whose center-center spacing can be made less than 100 microm. The array and associated electronics can be constructed by technology typically found in most(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine whether the treatment of obstructed rat bladders with αlipoic acid (ALA) and silymarin reverses the biochemical and physiological responses to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). A total of 32 adult Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=8 per group): sham (placebo surgery) animals with no treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Modern computerized spike recording systems are increasingly powerful and sophisticated. However, this increases the importance of performing validation by recording signals from a system with a known input-output relationship. NEW METHOD We present here a simple and robust analog circuit that uses a minimum number of commonly available(More)
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