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Previous restriction analysis of cloned equine DNA and genomic DNA of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells had indicated the existence of one c epsilon, one c alpha and up to six c gamma genes in the haploid equine genome. The c epsilon and c alpha genes have been aligned on a 30 kb DNA fragment in the order 5' c epsilon-c alpha 3'. Here we describe(More)
Inactivated alum-adjuvanted conventional equine influenza virus vaccines are of poor efficacy and offer limited short-term protection against infection. In sharp contrast, natural infection with equine influenza virus confers long-term protective immunity. In order to identify the protective immune responses to equine influenza virus, the influenza(More)
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease that can lead to acute renal failure and often to other serious sequelae, including death. The majority of cases are attributed to infections with Escherichia coli, serotype O157:H7 strains in particular, which cause bloody diarrhea and liberate one or two toxins known as Shiga toxins 1 and 2. These toxins are(More)
Immunofluorescence-based assays have been developed to detect and quantitate Cryptosporidium parvum infection in cell culture. Here, we describe a method that tracks and quantifies the early phase of attachment and invasion of C. parvum sporozoites using a fluorescent dye. Newly excysted sporozoites were labeled with the amine-reactive fluorescein probe(More)
The lack of robust methods for culturing Cryptosporidium parasites remains a major challenge and is hampering efforts to screen for anti-cryptosporidial drugs. In existing culture methods, monolayers of mammalian epithelial cells are inoculated with oocysts. The system supports an initial phase of asexual proliferation of the parasite. For reasons that are(More)
The aim of this study was to characterise the morphological and histochemical features of equine nasopharyngeal tonsillar tissue. Nasal and oropharyngeal tonsillar tissue has been described as the gatekeeper to mucosal immunity because of its strategic location at the entrance to the respiratory and alimentary tracts. A combination of light, scanning and(More)
Two pyrogenic mitogens, SePE-H and SePE-I, were characterized in Streptococcus equi, the cause of equine strangles. SePE-H and SePE-I have molecular masses of 27.5 and 29.5 kDa, respectively, and each is almost identical to its counterpart in Streptococcus pyogenes M1. Both genes are adjacent to a gene encoding a phage muramidase of 49.7 kDa and are located(More)
Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) are isolated from hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases more frequently than are strains that produce both Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Stx2, whereas strains that produce only Stx1 are rarely isolated from HUS cases. Studies have implicated Stx2 as the sole contributor to acute kidney failure and other(More)
Leptospira-specific antibody isotypes in sera of late term equine fetuses aborted due to Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona-type kennewicki infection were characterized and compared with those of their dams. IgM was the dominant Leptospira-Specific isotype in both fetuses and mares. However, IgGa was the isotype in highest concentration in petal sera and(More)
This paper describes the production of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) identifying the four recognised equine IgG subisotypes IgG, IgGa, IgGb, IgGc and IgG(T). Pure preparations of the subisotypes for use in immunisations and testing were produced using a combination of gel filtration, salt precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and protein A(More)