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IMPORTANCE Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models. OBJECTIVE To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in(More)
The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention(More)
— Exact analysis as well as asymptotic analysis, based on large-deviation theory (LDT), are developed to compute the bit-error rate (BER) for ultrafast avalanche-photodiode (APD) based optical receivers assuming on-off keying and direct detection. The effects of intersymbol interference (ISI), resulting from the APD's stochastic avalanche buildup time, as(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials evaluating the use of erythropoietin (Epo) have demonstrated a limited reduction in transfusions; however, long-term developmental follow-up data are scarce. OBJECTIVE We compared anthropometric measurements, postdischarge events, need for transfusions, and developmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age in extremely(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate to minimize retinopathy without increasing adverse outcomes. METHODS We(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare 18- to 22-month cognitive scores and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in 2 time periods using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Neonatal Research Network assessment of extremely low birth weight infants with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (Bayley II) in 2006-2007 (period 1) and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and prenatal opiate exposure on infant mental, motor, and behavioral outcomes longitudinally between 1 and 3 years old. METHODS As part of a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II were administered to 1227 infants who were exposed to(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported an association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and childhood behavior problems as observed by the parent or caretaker. However, these behavior problems may not manifest in a structured environment, such as a school setting. OBJECTIVE We determined whether there is an association between PCE and school behavior(More)
Multiple binary outcomes are encountered frequently in epidemiologic research. This work was motivated by the Maternal Lifestyle Study, 1993-1995, where newborns exposed prenatally to cocaine and a comparison cohort were examined for the presence of central and autonomic nervous system (CNS/ANS) signs. Thus, each infant contributed to multiple, possibly(More)
BACKGROUND The goal was to identify cytokines associated with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Based on our earlier reports of decreased tissue expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, we hypothesized that infants with NEC also have low blood TGF-β levels. We further hypothesized that because fetal inflammation increases the risk of NEC, infants(More)