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The antiviral thymidine analog azidothymidine (AZT) is used to treat several virus-associated human cancers. However, to date the mechanism of AZT action remains unclear and thus, reasons for treatment failure are unknown. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of poor prognosis. Here, we report that enduring AZT treatment of(More)
Whereas adaptive immunity has been extensively studied, very little is known about the innate immunity of the host to HTLV-I infection. HTLV-I-infected ATL patients have pronounced immunodeficiency associated with frequent opportunistic infections, and in these patients, concurrent infections with bacteria and/or parasites are known to increase risks of(More)
Here, we report that freshly isolated unstimulated adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells present high telomerase activity compared to asymptomatic carriers or normal donors. In spite of this high telomerase activity, ATL cells retained shorter telomeres compared to those of uninfected cells isolated from the same patients. Because the safeguarding of telomere(More)
The Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Unregulated activation of Notch signaling can result in excessive cellular proliferation and cancer. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The disease has a dismal prognosis and is(More)
In immortal cells, the existence of a mechanism for the maintenance of telomere length is critical. In most cases this is achieved by the reactivation of telomerase, a cellular reverse transcriptase that prevents telomere shortening. Here we report that the telomerase gene (hTERT) promoter is up-regulated during transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic(More)
Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I Rex and p30 are both RNA binding regulatory proteins. Rex is a protein that interacts with a responsive element and stimulates nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral RNAs thereby increasing production of virus particles. In contrast, p30 is involved in the nuclear retention of the tax/rex mRNA leading to(More)
In this paper, a fully automatic method for gridding bright field images of bead-based microarrays is proposed. There have been numerous techniques developed for gridding fluorescence images of traditional spotted microarrays but to our best knowledge, no algorithm has yet been developed for gridding bright field images of bead-based microarrays. The(More)
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