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India's health financing system is a cause of and an exacerbating factor in the challenges of health inequity, inadequate availability and reach, unequal access, and poor-quality and costly health-care services. Low per person spending on health and insufficient public expenditure result in one of the highest proportions of private out-of-pocket expenses in(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the association between plasma concentrations of antioxidative micronutrients and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in elderly adults. DESIGN Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING Austrian Stroke Prevention Study, a population-based cohort study on brain aging. PARTICIPANTS Individuals with a mean age of 66 ± 7 (n = 786; 58%(More)
Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a promising hemoglobin-based, oxygen-carrying resuscitative solution. DCLHb (400 mg/kg, iv) produces significant cardiovascular effects, along with an increase in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) level, when administered to conscious or anesthetized rats. Present studies were performed to determine whether the(More)
Piracetam (PIR), a cyclic GABA derivative without GABA-mimetic activity, is classified as a nootropic agent, a new class of psychotropic drugs which augment learning acquisition and retention of memory. The present study indicates that PIR has significant anxiolytic activity in rodents following subchronic, but not acute administration, when tested against(More)
BACKGROUND Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness relate to better cognitive performance. Little is known about the effects of fitness on structural brain abnormalities in the elderly. OBJECTIVE Assess the association between maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max), white matter lesion (WML) volume and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) in a large(More)
Effect of some selective agonists and antagonists of cholinergic M receptor subtypes on rectal temperature was investigated in rats at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees +/- 2 degrees C. Centrally administered acetylcholine (ACh) induced transient hypothermia, whereas the muscarinic M1 receptor agonists, arecholine (ip) and McN-A-343 (McN) (icv), induced(More)
Diaspirin crosslinked hemoglobin (DCLHb Baxter Healthcare Corp., Round Lake, IL, USA), a hemoglobin-based blood substitute has been found to be an effective resuscitative agent following hemorrhage in animals. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of DCLHb on microvascular perfusion in the brain and kidney following hemorrhage in(More)
Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb), a hemoglobin-based blood substitute, has been found to improve systemic hemodynamics, cutaneous oxygen tension, and normalization of blood lactate levels and acid-base equilibrium after hemorrhage in animals. The present study was conducted to determine the dose-dependent effect of a 10% solution of DCLHb (20, 50,(More)
Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a hemoglobin-based therapeutic agent that produces significant cardiovascular effects, possibly due to its actions on vasoactive substances, such as endothelin (ET) and nitric oxide (NO). We have studied the modulation of cardiovascular effects of DCLHb by an NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl(More)