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BACKGROUND Encoding of olfactory information in insects occurs in the antennal lobe where the olfactory receptor neurons interact with projection neurons and local interneurons in a complex sensory processing circuitry. While several studies have addressed the developmental mechanisms involved in specification and connectivity of olfactory receptor neurons(More)
Quantization index modulation is one of the best methods for performing blind watermarking, due to its simplicity and good rate-distortion-robustness trade-offs. In this paper, a new audio watermarking algorithm based on singular value decomposition and dither-modulation quantization is presented. The watermark is embedded using dither-modulation(More)
BACKGROUND The antennal lobe of Drosophila is perhaps one of the best understood neural circuits, because of its well-described anatomical and functional organization and ease of genetic manipulation. Olfactory lobe interneurons - key elements of information processing in this network - are thought to be generated by three identified central brain(More)
In this paper, we study several algorithms for batch verification of ECDSA signatures. The first of these algorithms is based upon the naive idea of taking square roots in the underlying field. We also propose two new and efficient algorithms which replace square-root computations by symbolic manipulations. Experiments carried out on NIST prime curves(More)
The dynamics of a quadrotor are a simplified form of helicopter dynamics that exhibit the same basic problems of underactuation, strong coupling, multi-input/multi-output design, and unknown nonlinearities. Control design for the quadrotor is more tractable yet reveals corresponding approaches for helicopter and UAV control design. In this paper, a(More)
The present study investigated the neural correlates of cognitive fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), looking specifically at the relationship between self-reported fatigue and objective measures of cognitive fatigue. In Experiment 1, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine where in the brain BOLD activity covaried with "state"(More)