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Perinatal infection is a well-identified risk factor for a number of neurodevelopmental disorders, including brain white matter injury (WMI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The underlying mechanisms by which early life inflammatory events cause aberrant neural, cytoarchitectural, and network organization, remain elusive. This study is aimed to(More)
The use of dexamethasone (Dex) in premature infants to prevent and/or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia can adversely affect early neurodevelopment and probably result in loss of cerebral volume. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF), specifically VEGF(164) isoform has neurotrophic, neuroprotective and neurogenesis enhancing effects. Previous studies(More)
The use of dexamethasone in premature infants to prevent and/or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia adversely affects neurocognitive development and is associated with cerebral palsy. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are multifactorial and likely include apoptosis. The objective of this study was to confirm whether dexamethasone causes apoptosis in(More)
Our previous study showed that a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment to neonatal rats could induce a long-lasting neuroinflammatory response and dopaminergic system injury late in life. This is evidenced by a sustained activation of microglia and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, as well as reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the(More)
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) protects the brain against ischemic injury in adult animals. We evaluated whether VEGF has neuroprotective effects against hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborn rats. Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid artery permanently ligated followed by 140 min of hypoxia (8% oxygen). VEGF (5, 10, 20, or 40 ng)(More)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been implicated to play critical roles in early neural development. Recent reports have suggested that perinatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) resulted in cortical network miswiring, abnormal social behavior, callosal myelin malformation, as well as oligodendrocyte (OL) pathology in(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) likely plays a role in the hypoxic preconditioning (PC) induced tolerance to subsequent hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the brain. However, limited data is available concerning VEGF in the developing brain after HI following PC. Neuroprotection by VEGF involves activation of Akt which inhibits apoptotic processes(More)
The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in Postnatal Day 7 (P7)-P10 or adult animal models. The current study was aimed to determine whether EPO also provides long-lasting neuroprotection against HI in P5 rats, which is relevant to immature human infants. Sprague-Dawley rats at(More)
We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced white matter injury in the neonatal rat brain is associated with inflammatory processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can be induced by inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules, suggesting that COX-2 may be considered as the target for anti-inflammation. The objective of the present study was to(More)