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The use of dexamethasone in premature infants to prevent and/or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia adversely affects neurocognitive development and is associated with cerebral palsy. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are multifactorial and likely include apoptosis. The objective of this study was to confirm whether dexamethasone causes apoptosis in(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF) likely plays a role in the hypoxic preconditioning (PC) induced tolerance to subsequent hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury to the brain. However, limited data is available concerning VEGF in the developing brain after HI following PC. Neuroprotection by VEGF involves activation of Akt which inhibits apoptotic processes(More)
Brain inflammation in early life may enhance adult susceptibility to develop neurodegenerative disorders triggered by environmental toxins. Our previous studies show that perinatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure enhances adult susceptibility to rotenone-induced injury to the dopaminergic system in the substantia nigra (SN) of the adult rat brain. To(More)
Proper formation of the pulmonary microvasculature is essential for normal lung development and gas exchange. Lung microvascular development may be disrupted by chronic injury of developing lungs in clinical diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We examined microvascular development, angiogenic growth factors, and endothelial cell receptors in a(More)
Sodium orthovanadate (SOV), a competitive inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, is neuroprotective in adult animals following an ischemic event. The present study evaluated whether SOV might be protective in a rat pup hypoxic-ischemic (HI) model. Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid artery permanently ligated followed by 140 min of hypoxia (8%(More)
Myelin regeneration is indispensably important for patients suffering from several central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and spinal cord injury (SCI), because it is not only essential for restoring neurophysiology, but also protects denuded axons for secondary degeneration. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms(More)
The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in Postnatal Day 7 (P7)-P10 or adult animal models. The current study was aimed to determine whether EPO also provides long-lasting neuroprotection against HI in P5 rats, which is relevant to immature human infants. Sprague-Dawley rats at(More)
Prior treatment with dexamethasone (Dex) provides neuroprotection against hypoxia ischemia (HI) in newborn rats. Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway plays an important role in the neuroprotection. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of the PI3K/Akt pathway in the Dex-induced neuroprotection(More)
Our previous study showed that a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment to neonatal rats could induce a long-lasting neuroinflammatory response and dopaminergic system injury late in life. This is evidenced by a sustained activation of microglia and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels, as well as reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the(More)
We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist(More)