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This paper examines the latency in Internet path failure, failover and repair due to the convergence properties of inter-domain routing. Unlike switches in the public telephony network which exhibit failover on the order of milliseconds, our experimental measurements show that inter-domain routers in the packet switched Internet may take tens of minutes to(More)
In this paper, we describe an experimental study of Internet topological stability and the origins of failure in Internet protocol backbones. The stability of end-to-end Internet paths is dependent both on the underlying telecommunication switching system, as well as the higher level software and hardware components specific to the Internet's(More)
This paper examines the role inter-domain topology and routing policy play in the process of delayed Internet routing convergence. In recent work, we showed that the Internet lacks effective inter-domain path fail-over. Unlike circuit-switched networks which exhibit fail-over on the order of milliseconds, we found Internet backbone routers may take tens of(More)
In this paper, we describe an experimental study of Internet stability and the origins of failure in Internet protocol backbones. The stability of end-to-end Internet paths is dependent both on the underlying telecommunication switching system, as well as the higher level software and hardware components speci c to the Internet's packet-switched forwarding(More)
All insect ovaries are composed of functional units called ovarioles, which contain sequentially developing egg chambers. The number of ovarioles varies between and within species. Ovariole number is an important determinant of fecundity and thus affects individual fitness. Although Drosophila oogenesis has been intensively studied, the genetic and cellular(More)
We investigated the genetic architecture of variation in male sex comb bristle number, a rapidly evolving secondary sexual character of Drosophila. Twenty-four generations of divergent artificial selection for sex comb bristle number in a heterogeneous population of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in a significant response that was more pronounced in the(More)
In this report, we explore the degree to which commercial strategies, peering disputes, network failures, misconfiguration, and occasionally, malicious intent, lead to a partitioning of Internet topology. Specifically, we present a three-year study of the one-sided differences in Internet provider reachability. We focus on “dark address space”, or the range(More)
OBJECTIVE Endovascular coiling has been used increasingly as an alternative to neurosurgical clipping for treating subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to aneurysm rupture. The aim of the present study was to provide a prospective, longitudinal investigation into cognitive function in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with either(More)
It is widely believed that the Internet is a highly faulttolerant, survivable network. In particular, the Internet is attributed with the ability to route packets around faults quickly, in a matter of seconds. However, in this position paper we provide empirical data from the experimental injection and measurement of several hundred thousand inter-domain(More)