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The majority of healthy individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will not develop disease and identifying what constitutes "protective immunity" is one of the holy grails of M. tuberculosis immunology. It is known that IFN-gamma is essential for protection, but it is also apparent that IFN-gamma levels alone do not explain the(More)
Human T cell responses to ESAT-6 and eight synthetic overlapping peptides were investigated in tuberculosis (TB) patients and control subjects from regions of high and low endemicity for TB. ESAT-6 was recognized by 65% of all tuberculin purified protein derivative-responsive TB patients, whereas only 2 of 29 bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated Danish(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is estimated to infect 80 to 100 million people annually, the majority of whom do not develop clinical tuberculosis (TB) but instead maintain the infection in a latent state. These individuals generally become positive in response to a tuberculin skin test and may develop clinical TB at a later date, particularly if their immune(More)
Measuring cytokine responses to infection has proven to be invaluable for the understanding of immunity to tuberculosis in the laboratory. However, far less data are available from studies in humans and these have often produced conflicting results. Here we describe a comprehensive multi-center comparison of the most commonly used protocols for cytokine(More)
Diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is considered essential for tuberculosis control but is hampered by the lack of specific reagents. We report that strong recognition of tuberculosis complex-specific antigen ESAT-6 by healthy household contacts of tuberculosis patients correlates with the subsequent development of active tuberculosis(More)
It is well known that the majority of healthy individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis do not become clinically ill. We have previously shown that in recently exposed healthy contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients, a strong immune response to the M. tuberculosis 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) virulence factor correlated with a(More)
Levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and interleukin (IL)-10 in plasma of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy contacts and plasma and pleural fluid of patients with tuberculous pleuritis were examined by enzyme immunoassay. Plasma TNF-alpha and IL-10 were elevated to significant levels in healthy(More)
Patients with Burkitt's lymphoma in chemotherapy-induced remission received through dermal scarifications one or two doses per week of approximately 3 X 10(8) living BCG organisms (Pasteur Institute vaccine). This treatment was always followed by usually rapid increases by 1--4 log2 steps in the antibody titers to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cell(More)