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Understanding how life arose is a fundamental problem of biology. Much progress has been made by adopting a synthetic and mechanistic perspective on originating life. We present a current view of the biochemistry of the origin of life, focusing on issues surrounding the emergence of an RNA World in which RNA dominated informational and functional roles.… (More)
The emergence of catalytic RNA is believed to have been a key event during the origin of life. Understanding how catalytic activity is distributed across random sequences is fundamental to estimating the probability that catalytic sequences would emerge. Here, we analyze the in vitro evolution of triphosphorylating ribozymes and translate their fitnesses… (More)
Pain is a phenomenon experienced by all forms of life. Many theories exist to explain how it is perceived. This paper examines several of those theories, particularly as they relate to nutritional and neurophysiological implications in the production and management of pain. An explanation of how certain chiropractic treatment modalities operate is provided.