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During the past decade, effective snake antivenoms have become scarce in northern Nigeria. As a result, many patients severely envenomed by the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), which is responsible for more than 95% of the snake bites in the region, did not receive effective treatment and mortality and morbidity increased. To combat this(More)
Multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genetic subtypes, intersubtype recombinants, and group O have been found in west central Africa. In Nigeria, where HIV-1 prevalence is rising rapidly, characterization of HIV-1 strains has been limited. Each of three full-length genome sequences acquired to date shows evidence of recombination: two are(More)
To establish the prevalence of HIV antibodies in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 536 new cases presenting with symptoms of bronchopulmonary disorders were randomly selected from the six referral chest clinics in Lagos and screened for tuberculosis and HIV infections. Sputum and serum samples were obtained from all the patients. The sputum samples were(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate two hospital outbreaks of Lassa fever in southern central Nigeria. SETTING Hospitals and clinics in urban and rural areas of Imo State, Nigeria. DESIGN Medical records were reviewed in hospitals and clinics in both areas. Patients with presumed and laboratory confirmed Lassa fever were identified and contracts traced. Hospital(More)
A particularly severe epidemic of meningococcal meningitis (cerebrospinal meningitis, CSM) occurred in Nigeria between January and June 1996. There were 109,580 recorded cases and 11,717 deaths, giving a case fatality rate of 10.7% overall. This is the most serious epidemic of CSM ever recorded in Nigeria, and may be the largest in Africa this century. It(More)
A large epidemic of urban yellow fever occurred in April and May 1987 in Oyo State, western Nigeria. The principal vector was Aedes aegypti, breeding in domestic water containers. The 1987 outbreak followed an epidemic of sylvatic yellow fever in eastern Nigeria the previous year, and probably resulted from introduction of the virus by viraemic travellers.(More)
During an outbreak of yellow fever (YF) in Nigeria in 1986-1987, women at various stages of pregnancy were vaccinated against YF, either because those pregnancies were not known at the time or because they requested vaccination out of fear of acquiring the disease. This offered an opportunity to assess the safety and efficacy of YF vaccine in pregnant women(More)
The cost-effectiveness of preventive yellow fever vaccination versus emergency mass vaccination campaigns for epidemic control remains a matter of controversy. Until recently, Nigeria and other anglophone countries in West Africa most severely afflicted by yellow fever epidemics have followed a policy of emergency control. The effects of including yellow(More)
Currently there is a crisis in the supply of antivenom for treatment of snake bite in sub-Saharan Africa. Commercial pressures have resulted in the reduction or even cessation of production of antivenom by European manufacturers while continued production of antivenom in Africa has been threatened by the privatisation of the only remaining company based in(More)