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To use rodent models effectively in in-vivo investigations on oral drug and vaccine delivery, the conditions in the gastrointestinal tract must be understood. Some fundamental information is currently unavailable or incomplete. We have investigated the pH, water content and lymphoid tissue distribution along the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the(More)
There are 100 trillion microbes in the human gastrointestinal tract with numbers increasing distally. These microbiota secrete a diverse array of enzymes (primarily for carbohydrate and protein fermentation) giving them substantial metabolic potential which can have major implications for drug stability. At least thirty drugs which are, or have been,(More)
We carried out a genome-wide association study of type-2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of South Asian ancestry. Our discovery set included 5,561 individuals with T2D (cases) and 14,458 controls drawn from studies in London, Pakistan and Singapore. We identified 20 independent SNPs associated with T2D at P < 10(-4) for testing in a replication sample of(More)
Laboratory animals are often used in drug delivery and research. However, basic information about their gastrointestinal pH, fluid volume, and lymphoid tissue is not completely known. We have investigated these post-mortem in healthy guinea pigs, rabbits and pigs, to assess their suitability for pre-clinical studies by comparing the results with reported(More)
We need to look beyond our gut instincts to use information on "simple" intestinal physiological parameters as they have been presented to us in the past. Here we present a discussion on such parameters, old and new, and ask how much we really understand them. Behaviour of drugs and delivery systems in the intestine depends on many physiological factors(More)
Infiltration of activated neutrophils [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)] into the lung is an important component of the inflammatory response in acute lung injury. The signals required to direct PMN into the different compartments of the lung have not been fully elucidated. In a murine model of LPS-induced lung injury, we investigated the sequential(More)
AIMS A common variant, rs9939609, in the FTO (fat mass and obesity) gene is associated with adiposity in Europeans, explaining its relationship with diabetes. However, data are inconsistent in South Asians. Our aim was to investigate the association of the FTO rs9939609 variant with obesity, obesity-related traits and Type 2 diabetes in South Asian(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro dissolution characteristics of pH-responsive polymers in a variety of simulated fluids. Prednisolone tablets were fabricated and coated with the following polymer systems: Eudragit S (organic solution), Eudragit S (aqueous dispersion), Eudragit FS (aqueous dispersion) and Eudragit P4135 (organic(More)
Chitosan salts are being investigated as materials for bacterially triggered colonic drug delivery, via the oral route, based on the assumption that they will be degraded by the enzymes produced by the human colonic bacteria. The actual susceptibility of chitosan to these enzymes is, however, unclear. The digestion of chitosan films (noncrosslinked, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Our study aims to assess the presentation, prevalence, and associations of acute and chronic complications in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) at their first visit to outpatient departments. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING Study was carried out at two centers, Diabetic Association of Pakistan and WHO Collaborating Centre and Baqai(More)